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四川学纹眉宜宾纹绣公司成都/炫彩坊国际纹绣培训学校学习韩式半永久雾眉毛多少钱 南充唇部纹绣培训学校哪家好

成都/熙华纹绣培训韩式半永久纹眉定妆培训Science and Technolgy科技Foie-gras production论鹅肝How much is too much?多少是个度Why some duck livers are delicious, and others nasty为什么有的鹅肝是珍馐,有的却让人恶心FOIE GRAS is one of the most controversial dishes on earth. To protagonists, it is simply the finest foodstuff that exists. To those opposed, it is a product of cruelty that is not far short of criminal. The overfeeding of ducks and geese, so that their livers bloat to between six and ten times their normal size and take on a buttery consistency valued by gourmets, exploits the ability of these birds to store large amounts of calorie-rich fat, which was needed to propel them on the long migrations that their wild ancestors would routinely have undertaken. The moral argument over the way foie gras is produced (by feeding the birds with grain, through a tube or a funnel) turns on whether this is merely the permissible exaggeration of a natural inclination, or is tantamount to abuse. Intriguingly, a newly published piece of research on foie-gras production suggests the quality of the product depends on exactly the same distinction.鹅肝是这世上最富争议的食物之一。持鹅肝的人说它是最美的珍馐;而反对者则认为制作鹅肝与犯罪无异。鸭鹅被过度灌食后,肝脏将变为正常水平的6至10倍并呈现出美食家所推崇的黄油状,肝脏贮存脂肪的能力被充分挖掘。鸭鹅的祖先需要定期长途迁徙,而这些脂肪可以为其提供充足的能量。制作鹅肝*(用管子或漏斗对鸭鹅灌饲谷物)涉及一个道德问题:这种做法究竟是在可接受的范围内将动物自身的功能发挥至极致,还是一种虐待行为。有意思的是,最近发表的一篇关于制作鹅肝的研究认为,鹅肝的质量取决于这一问题。From the chefs point of view, one of the disturbing things about foie gras is how variable it is. Some livers, when cooked, retain their fat and thus their rich flavour. Others lose fat when heated and end up tasting terrible. To try to work out why, Caroline Molette, a biologist at the University of Toulouse, did some experiments. Her results, just published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, suggest that the difference is whether the liver in question is truly healthy or not.在厨师看来,鹅肝的麻烦事之一是质量参差不齐。有些肝脏烹饪后还保留着脂肪、油腻感十足。有些肝脏在加热后脂肪就没了,相当难吃。为了搞清楚其中缘由,法国图卢兹大学(University of Toulouse)的生物学家Caroline Molette进行了实验,并将结果发表于《农业与食品化学杂志》(Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry)。她认为其中差别在于所用肝脏健康与否。Dr Molette and her colleagues raised 150 male mule ducks (a cross between Pekin and Muscovy ducks that is often used to produce foie gras) for 13 weeks in standard poultry-house conditions and then transferred them into individual enclosures. For a further 12 days the birds were fattened up with a mash of grain and flour—the usual procedure for enlarging their livers. They were then slaughtered, their livers removed, and those livers immediately trimmed of their blood vessels and chilled for six hours.Molette士与其同事将150只雄性杂交鸭(北京鸭与疣鼻栖鸭的杂交种,常用于生产鹅肝)在家禽饲养场标准条件下养殖13周,然后转入单独的笼子中。在之后的12天,用谷物和面粉的混合物灌饲鸭子——这是让肝脏变大的常用步骤。然后处死鸭子,取肝脏,快速剔除血管,冷藏六小时。So far, so normal. But instead of cooking the whole things, Dr Molette removed a 200-gram sample from each liver (an average liver weighed 550 grams) and put the rest in cold storage. She then placed each sample into a jar with a bit of salt and pepper, and cooked it for an hour. As she expected, some livers released a lot of fat when cooked while others released little. Armed with this information, she was able to turn her attention back to the uncooked sections of the livers and see if she could find any systematic chemical differences between them.到此阶段,一切正常。然而Molette 士并没有使用整个肝脏,而是从每份肝脏(均重550克)中取200克作为样品,其余冷藏。她将每个样品分别放置在罐子中,加入少许盐和胡椒,烹饪半小时。正如她所料,烹饪时有些肝脏释放出大量脂肪,而有些却不是。获得这一信息后,她就将目光转向至还没处理的那部分肝脏,她想知道这二者之间是否存在系统性化学差异。Using a combination of electrophoresis (which sorts proteins according to their size and electrical properties) and mass spectrometry (which sorts fragments of those proteins according to their weight), she was able to do just that. The upshot was that the fat-retaining livers were rich in a variety of proteins known to help the body digest and store food. In the fat-shedding livers, by contrast, she found high concentrations of a protein called fatty-acid-binding-protein 4. In a human liver, this would be a marker of disease. Put simply, the fat-retaining livers are healthy while the fat-shedding ones are not.Molette 士使用电泳(根据蛋白质的分子大小和电荷差异,将蛋白质分离)和质谱(根据分子量将蛋白碎片分离)测定来进行实验。结果发现,保留脂肪的蛋白质富含多种有助于人体消化和贮存食物的蛋白质。相比之下,她在没有脂肪的肝脏中发现了一种名为脂肪酸-结合蛋白4的蛋白质,且浓度很高。在人类肝脏中,这种蛋白是一种疾病指示物。简单的说,保留脂肪的肝脏是健康肝脏,而没有脂肪的肝脏不健康。Both sides of the debate, then, are right. Foie-gras production can be a form of abuse but is not necessarily so, for an enlarged liver can still be healthy. The question is, how do you draw the line?所以,讨论双方说的都对。生产鹅肝可以是一种虐待行为,但也可以不是,因为超大肝脏仍然可以是健康的。问题在于,分界线在哪里?Dr Molettes ducks were all treated similarly, and their livers were of more or less the same size (certainly, the fat-shedding ones were not systematically heavier). The search is therefore on for some way to tell in advance which animals will respond positively to extra helpings and which will not. That knowledge would help farmers, gourmets and animal-lovers alike.Molette士的鸭子,处理方法相似,肝脏大小差不多一样(当然,没有脂肪的肝脏总体来说不会更重)。所以,这项研究可以从某种角度提前告诉我们:哪些动物对过度喂食反应良好,哪些不是。这一点也可帮助农民、美食家、以及动物爱好者。 /201210/203567德阳顶级纹绣师 When Marmosets Think About Love小猴子表达如何爱狨猴(Marmoset),又称指猴,是生活在在南美洲亚马逊河流域的森林中的一种世界上最小的猴子。这种猴长大后身高仅10—12厘米,重80—100克。新生猴只有蚕豆般大小,重13克。这种猴子喜欢捉虱子吃,且性格温和,因此饲养它们便成了当地印第安人的嗜好。Marmosets are small primates. Think of a monkey with huge fuzzy ears. Primatologists have often wondered whether nonhuman males evaluated their potential mates, or whether their sex drive was more like an on/off switch.绒猴是很小的灵长类。试想一下,猴子长者一对大大的毛绒绒的耳朵。动物学家时常有这样的疑惑:雄性动物选择“另一半”或者控制性欲是否更像是一个开关键。We may think of animals as just responding to sexual invitations without thinking, but a study conducted in both the U.S. and Germany shows this isnt necessarily so. Male marmosets having their brains scanned were given sniffs of genital-gland secretions from ovulating females.我们也许会认为动物对于性邀请基本是不假思索的,但最近美国和德国有研究称事实并非如此。雄性绒猴用它们的大脑扫描,闻正在排卵的磁性动物生殖腺的分泌物。Thats a scent that should trigger a mating response in the brain, and it did! But guess what else happened? Many other brain areas lit up as well, such as memory formation, information integration–in other words, areas associated with decision-making.有一种气味会引起大脑里的交配反应,这样它们才会进行交配。但你猜还会发生什么情况?很多其它的大脑叶都会被“激活”,像信息形成,信息整合,也就是说,所有和决策相关的区域。Researchers are still studying the effect, but apparently a lot more happens in a marmoset brain than a simple “have sex now” program. The specific areas of brain activity suggest that the males are evaluating potential mates before agreeing to a sexual union.研究人员还在观察其影响,但很显然,绒猴的脑部有很多活动而不是一个简单的“性行为”指定。特定区域的大脑活动暗示雄性绒猴在性结合之前会评估潜在的交配对象。This makes special sense for marmosets, because they are monogamous and both partners raise the offspring. Under those circumstances you wouldnt want to enter into a relationship without any thought.这对于绒猴有特殊的意义,因为它们是单配制,并且共同抚养后代。在这种情况下,就不会不假思索地介入这段关系了。 /201209/199246广汉市纹绣 学校

彭州市半永久培训费用ONE of the unforgettable experiences to be had in California is to go whale watching in Monterey Bay. Nancy Black, a licensed marine biologist, is one of the scientists who lead these commercial outings, besides doing her own whale research. As Lawrence Biegel, her lawyer, tells it, one day Ms Black was in her research boat with assistants when killer whales attacked a pod of grey whales and killed a calf. Its blubber floated to the surface, and the killer whales were about to feed on it. Seizing this opportunity to film their behaviour, Ms Black thed ropes through some pieces of blubber, then lowered a camera underwater.来到加利福尼亚州,前往蒙特利海湾观赏鲸鱼是其中一个令人难忘的经历。南西bull;布莱克是一位获得执照的海洋生物学家,她是位在研究鲸鱼之余充当这种商业观光活动的导游的科学家之一。她的律师劳伦斯bull;比格尔说,有一天布莱克女士和助手正在研究船上,当时几头杀人鲸攻击了一群灰鲸并杀死了一只幼鲸。幼鲸的鲸脂浮上海面,而那些杀人鲸则打算以此果腹。为了乘机拍摄杀人鲸的生活习性,布莱克女士用绳将几块鲸脂串起来,然后将一部摄影机放入水下。For this, Ms Black might now face up to 20 years in prison and half a million dollars in fines, after a federal grand jury indicted her this month. Little about the charges makes common sense. The federal law in question is the 1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act, which was intended to save dolphins, seals and whales from being killed and harassed. The law also banned feeding these animals, on the theory that doing so might compromise their ability to forage naturally in future. Feeding is what Ms Black is now accused of. She says she was using the protocols she had learned from the federal agencies that are now investigating her to observe a natural feeding that was aly in progress.为此,布莱克女士在本月遭到一个联邦大陪审团起诉,如今她可能面临最高二十年的有期徒刑及五十万美元的罚款。这些指控完全不合情理。与此案相关的法律是于1972年颁布的联邦法律《海洋哺乳动物保护法案》。此法旨在保护海豚、海豹、鲸鱼不被捕杀及骚扰;同时也禁止向以上动物喂食,理论依据是这样做会损害日后它们自行觅食的能力。布莱克女士现在被指控的就是向鲸鱼喂食。她说她当时观察鲸鱼捕食所遵循的标准正是从正在调查她的各联邦机构处获得的。Just as ridiculous, says Mr Biegel, is the accusation, increasingly common in federal cases, that Ms Black lied to the authorities, which carries its own prison terms. Ms Black always edits the commercial s of her whale outings to make them more interesting. When investigators demanded footage, she gave them one of these edited s. Prosecutors now claim that she had tampered with evidence.比格尔说,同样荒唐的是南西被指控对当局撒谎(这种指控在联邦诉讼案件中日益普遍),而单是这项罪名也能被判监禁。布莱克女士总是会对她拍摄的商用鲸鱼视频进行剪辑,好让它们更有意思。当调查方要求获得拍摄胶卷时,她交出了其中一个剪辑过的视频。现在检察官声称她篡改了据。To Harvey Silverglate, the author of ;Three Felonies a Day: How the Feds Target the Innocent;, this is par for the course in Americarsquo;s federal justice system today. A couple of trends have combined to threaten justice and liberty. First, federal statutes are often so poorly written and so vague that they are in effect incomprehensible. This gives excessive discretion to bureaucrats and prosecutors, with their own career ambitions, who apply them haphazardly.在《一天三宗罪:联邦政府如何攻击无辜之人》的作者哈维bull;Silverglate看来,在当今美国的联邦司法体系中发生这种事实属意料之中。现已出现了两种趋势,对司法与自由都产生了威胁。首先,许多联邦法令行文拙劣、含糊其辞,以至于实际上难以理解。这就给了官僚和检查官们过度的决定权,这些各自怀有职业抱负的人会滥用这种权力。Second, federal law has been moving away from mens rea (;guilty mind;), a common-law tradition that suggests that a person who had no idea he was breaking a law should not be accused of doing so. With bloated federal legislation and without mens rea you can accuse most people of something or other, says Mr Silverglate. The question should be, he says, whether charges are reasonable when they run ;counter to all human instinct and experience;.其次,联邦法律已逐渐抛弃了;犯罪意图;(;犯罪心理;)这一概念。;犯罪意图;是习惯法的一种传统,意思是一个没有意识到自己犯了罪的人不应被起诉。Silverglate说,在名目繁多的联邦法律之下,没有;犯罪意图;这一概念,大部分人都可能因为这样或者那样的罪名遭到起诉。他说,问题应该在于:当指控与;人类所有的常识及经验背道而驰;时,它们仍是合理的吗?201201/168559 遂宁学雕眉多少钱简阳市学习纹绣的价格



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