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2018年06月22日 17:19:15 | 作者:咨询在线 | 来源:新华社
The Western Jin Dynasty was a state mainly composed of privileged landlords.西晋王朝是一个门阀贵族的政权。Most political and economic measures instituted by the Emperor Wu(Sima Yan) meant to protect the benefits of these few for the landlords and gentry dorminated the government.晋武帝司马炎在完成统一之后对晋朝的官制、兵制、法制等一系列政治制度进行了调整,但由于晋臣多为前朝的名门望族,故而他们提出的政治改革措施多以保障其自身利益为主。The Western Jin government allowed officials of different ranks to possess different amounts of fields, tenants and dependent families. In this way, the privilege of the bureaucratic landlords was acknowledged.允许官吏按官品高低占有不同数量的土地和佃客、荫户,承认官僚地主的特权。The system of “ classifying talented people into nine grades for government appoint-ment” established in the Wei had undergone great changes, with most government positions being held by officials from powerful or privileged families. This system ultimately became a tool for those families to expand their own power.曹魏时制定的“九品中正制”,到了西晋,已发生相当大的变化,中正官职多为世族门阀出身的官僚所把持,这一制度变成他们培植门阀私家势力的重要工具。The increasing strength of the powerful families during this period intensified the conflict between the officials and the commoners, which weakened the power of the rulers and buried the seeds of great social upheaval.西晋统治时期,豪强大族的势力得到发展,士庶之间的矛盾不断扩大,削弱了西晋的统治力量。门阀士族的空前发展,构成了与皇权的矛盾,也直接成为魏晋南北朝时期动乱的根源。The extravagant, corrupt and wasteful life of the court rendered the righteous no cause.这一时期,统治集团奢侈腐化,聚敛了大量财产,互相争豪比富。In those turbulent days many gentry-officials and scholars felt despaired and escaped from reality and politics by indulging themselves in wine and mere talks.许多士人身处乱世,遂悲观消极、逃避现实、不问政事,终日饮酒清谈,玩世不恭。Hence metaphysical discourse and learning flourished amongst the literati.于是清谈、玄学之风一时大盛。 /201512/415729

Tang Dynasty唐朝Foreign Relations外交The Tang Dynasty also marked a golden age of relations with foreign powers.唐朝同样是一个与外国发展联系的黄金时代。The excellence of its advanced civilization rendered the Chinese Empire the envy of countries throughout Asia, Europe and Africa.它高度发达的闻名使得中国受到了其他亚欧非国家的羡慕。Each in their turn sent envoys and merchants to trade with the Tang, whose empire was to become a world center for trade and cultural exchange.那些国家因此派使者和商人与大唐——世界贸易和文化交流的中心,进行贸易往来。The Tang was trading with more than seventy countries.大唐与超过70个国家进行交易。To foster this trade, the government allowed tax concessions to foreigners, who were permitted to settle in China and to marry Chinese citizens.为了推动贸易,政府对外国人采取了税收优惠,他们被允许定居中国、和中国人民通婚。Some even went on to secure positions within the government.有一些外国人甚至在政府内部做官。Many foreign countries began to call the Chinese “Tang people”, appellation that survives in some countries to this day.很多国家开始称呼中国人“唐人”,这个称呼直至今日在一些国家仍然存在。 /201511/405229

Fans of the late Princess Diana have expressed their disgust after a lock of hair said to be from the much-loved royal has been put up for sale on Amazon.一绺已故的戴安娜王妃的头发被放上亚马逊出售,这位倍受敬爱的皇室成员的粉丝们对此表达了厌恶。Described as just a #39;few strands#39; of Diana#39;s hair, the American seller has put the memorabilia in a frame along with a photograph and a facsimile signature.这家美国销售商在商品描述中称这只是“几缕”戴安娜的头发,并将该纪念品与一张照片和一份复写签名放进同一个相框里。The framed hair is currently on sale for ,200 on the online retail site.装入相框的头发目前以1200美元的价格在这家线上零售网站出售。Although it#39;s 18 years since Diana died in a car accident in Paris in August 1997, such is her enduring popularity that there#39;s still a lively trade in souvenirs and memorabilia relating to her.尽管距戴安娜1997年8月在巴黎因车祸过世已过了18年,但她的人气持久不衰,与她相关纪念品的交易现在仍然十分红火。However, a lock of hair is a step too far according to the British Monarchist Society, who have criticised the seller for putting royal hair in the marketplace.然而,英国君主主义者协会表示,把一绺头发拿来卖还是太过分了,该协会批评该卖家使皇室成员的头发流入市场出售。A spokesman for the society told the Daily Star: #39;The sale of modern royal hair makes us feel uneasy and we are sure Princes William and Harry would be disturbed by the auction too: it is, essentially, a body part.#39;该协会一位发言人对《每日之星》说:“售卖当代皇室成员的头发令我们感到很不舒。我们确定,威廉王子和哈里王子也会因此感到困扰:毕竟头发实际上是身体的一部分。”They also added that they weren#39;t surprised to see #39;a lot such as this up for sale.#39;他们补充道,他们对看到‘很多这样的商品出售’并不会感到惊讶。The framed photograph also appeared on ebay, although it has since expired and has yet to be relisted. It carried a price tag of 9.99.这一有框照片也在易趣网上出现过,尽管现已失效尚未重新上架。它的定价为349.99美元。The seller is thought to be a Mr G Vernon, who is advertising his product via Mr Hamilton, an art dealer who lives in Minneapolis, and on Amazon with Ed Bedrick Autographs, a long-standing autographs business.这个卖家据信可能是位名叫G·弗农先生的人,他通过住在明尼阿波利斯的艺术品商人汉密尔顿先生推销他的商品;在亚马逊上又与历史悠久的名家真迹企业Ed Bedrick Autographs合作。The listing on Amazon describes the lock of hair as #39;100 per cent authentic#39; and bills the sale as #39;an extraordinary opportunity to purchase a piece of Authentic Princess Diana memorabilia.#39;亚马逊上的商品描述称这绺头发“百分百真实”,并称这笔交易为“一个购买真正的戴安娜公主纪念品的绝好机会”。Although there#39;s no indication of when the hair was taken from the princess, it doesn#39;t seem to be a substantial cut of hair, with just a few strands seemingly placed #39;over a scan of the original lock#39;.尽管并未说明这绺头发是什么时候从王妃头上取下的,但看起来并非一大把头发,貌似只有几根头发放在真发的扫描图之上。The authentication document stretches to ten pages, although it#39;s unclear what it contains. The Amazon agent for it is resolute, however, that it#39;s genuine. In replying to a question about authenticity, Ed Bedrick Autographs said: #39;This is an AUTHENTIC lock of Princess Diana#39;s hair NOT synthetic. It comes with all documentation and authenticity for the piece.#39;鉴定文件长达十页,尽管我们不知道其中的具体内容。然而,亚马逊负责该商品的代理人坚称,头发是真的。在回应对真实性的疑问时,Ed Bedrick Autographs称:“这是真实的戴安娜王妃头发,不是合成的。这绺头发附带有各种材料和真实性明。”The item has been on sale on Amazon since August, with apparently no serious bidders so far.这绺头发从8月开始在亚马逊上出售,但到目前还没有真正想购买的买家。 /201510/403243

Song Dynasty宋朝Southern Song Dynasty南宋The military weakness of the Northern Song (960—1127) eventually took its toll.北宋时期(960——1127)军队的软弱最终使其自食恶果。In 1127, the Jin army sacked the Northern Song capital of Kaifeng, taking Emperor Huizong and most of his family hostage.1127年,金国军队洗掠了北宋都城开封,徽宗和他的大部分家人成了人质。Huizong’ ninth son, Zhaogou, fled to the south.徽宗的九儿子赵构逃亡了南方。That same year, the Song court re-established itself in Lin’an (present Hangzhou City), where it continued to rule for another 150 years as the Southern Song Dynasty.同年,宋朝在临安(今杭州)重建南宋政府,进行了150年的统治。Zhaogou is known historically as Emperor Gaozong.赵构历史上被称为“宋高宗”。The period of the Southern Song is neither a period of power nor stability and the dynasty only controlled the area south of the Yangtze River.南宋时期国家既不强大也不稳定,这个朝代也仅仅控制了长江南部的地区。When the dynasty was newly established, instead of appointing competent people to carry out reforms and devise effective defensive strategies, Emperor Gaozong did the opposite.南宋刚建成时,宋高宗不仅没有任用有贤能的人实施改革并设计有效的防御措施反而做了背道而驰的事情。By blocking the efforts of his talented Prime Minister Ligang he reversed the dominant military strategy from one of active resistance to passive defence.通过阻挠有才能的宰相李纲,高宗将主要的军事策略从主动防御转变成了被动防守。In addition, talented people were supplanted and less able and often incapable ones were appointed to very important positions.不仅如此,有才智的人们遭到了排挤,而无能的人却被任命了重要的官职。 /201511/406470

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