喀什韩式三点双眼皮的价格
时间:2019年10月14日 10:28:17

Chen Sheng- Wu Guang Uprising陈胜吴广起义Chen Sheng-Wu Guang Uprising was the first large-scale peasant uprising in Chinese history, which led to the downfall of the Qin Dynasty (221----206B.C.).陈胜吴广起义是中国历史上第一次大规模的农民起义,起义最终推翻了秦朝(公元前206年----公元前221年)的统治。In 210B.C, Qin Emperor Shihuang died on his inspection travel.在公元前 210 年,秦始皇死在视察旅行中。The eunuch Zhao Gao wrote a faked letter to Fusu in the name of the deceased emperor, ordering Fusu to commit suicide, and his younger brother Huhai, the deceased emperor’s favorite, was installed as Second Emperor.太监赵高以死去的秦始皇的名义伪造诏书,命令秦始皇钟爱的大儿子扶苏自杀,另立始皇幼子胡亥为帝,即秦二世。He was a cool-hearted and cruel ruler.他是一个冷血残忍的统治者。In order to keep secret of Qin Emperor Shihuang’s mausoleum, he plugged up the exit and killed all the workers in it.为了保护皇帝秦始皇的陵墓的秘密,他堵住了出口,杀了所有的工人。In his first year, rebellions of the old nobility and peasantry broke out.其当政第一年,旧贵族和农民的起义爆发了。In 209B.C, Hu Hai, the Second Emperor, ordered 900 people in the Huaihe River region to Yuyang (today’s Miyun in Beijing) to keep guard.公元前209年,秦二世胡亥,命令900余人到榆阳(今北京密云)的淮河地区戍边。It was July when it rained a lot.时值七月,时常下雨。When people arrived in Dazexiang (southwest in today’s Suxian County in Anhui Province), it began to rain cats and dogs; and they were bound to be late.当人们抵达大泽乡时(在今天的安徽省宿县县西南),天降大雨,他们注定要迟到了。According to the laws at that time, those who failed to observe deadlines would be sentenced to death.根据当时的法律,那些未能遵守截止日期到达的人会被判处死刑。People had no other choice but to rise up in revolt.人们没有其他选择,只能站起来反抗。Chen Sheng and Wu Guang were both from Henan Province.陈胜、吴广都来自河南省。They led the peasants to attack and occupy finally the Chen County (today’s Hengyang in Henan Province), and they established their own regime of Zhangchu.他们带领农民,最终攻占了陈县(今衡阳河南省),随后建立了张楚政权。Then their army sent westward by Chen Sheng to fight against Qin army was defeated by Zhang Han.随后陈胜指挥军队西进,与秦军作战的军队被打败张韩。Later, Chen Sheng and Wu Guang were murdered by their subordination.And the rest of the army was surrendered to Liu Bang and Xiang Yu.后来,陈胜、吴广被部下谋杀,剩余的军队被刘邦和项羽收编。In 206B.C, the Qin Dynasty came to an infamous end and the glorious dynasty fell victim to the fear and mistrust bred by its own despotic excesses.公元前 206 年,秦王朝迎来了其臭名昭著的瓦解,这个曾经辉煌的王朝最终倒在了由自己暴虐的荒淫无度的行为所导致的民怨载道上。 /201509/397331

It#39;s said to be the most important meal of the day...even if only six per cent of us eat it。据说早餐是一日三餐中最重要的一餐……虽然只有6%的人会吃早餐。But a poll has now decided what should be on the plate for the perfect full English breakfast。通过投票,人们选出了一顿丰盛的全英式早餐所应包含的食物。And there is no room for ‘johnny come lately’ hash browns or northern delicacy black pudding。新兴的美式香煎土豆丝和北方美食黑布丁则不在此列。A poll of 2,000 people made the decision and it is:2000人投票选出的是:Fried eggs, smoked bacon, thick sausages, grilled tomatoes, fried mushrooms, toast and baked beans。煎蛋、醺肉、粗香肠、烤番茄、炸蘑菇、吐司和烘豆。And while this might be a big sp, cooked breakfasts are the cheapest they#39;ve been for five years。这个结果或许将会广为传播,但煮早餐早已是近5年以来最实惠的早餐方式了。Almost half the people asked made the full English their favourite breakfast dish and over a third of Brits eat breakfast out more than once a month。参与投票的人中几乎有一半都的最爱是全英式早餐,而超过三分之一的英国人每个月至少会出去吃一顿早餐。And there is still fierce debate over the perfect condiment to accompany the Full English breakfast – in the South, ketchup is the sauce of choice but in the North, breakfast champions refuse to use any condiment other than brown sauce。至于全英式早餐要配什么佐料,人们仍然在激烈争论着。在南部,人们会选择番茄酱,但在北部,早餐的佐料只会用棕酱。Mitchells amp; Butlers - the company behind high street pub and bar chains like Toby Carvery, Harvester restaurants and Sizzling Pubs – carried out the research and the firm’s marketing specialist Jo Hudson, said: “There is so much debate about the Full English breakfast that we wanted to identify what Britain really wanted on its classic breakfast plate。这个调查是由Mitchells amp; Butlers发起的,这家公司拥有Toby烤肉店、Harvester餐厅和Sizzling酒馆这样的商业街酒吧连锁。公司的市场专家琼-哈德森说:“关于全英式早餐的争论太多了,所以我们想确认一下英国人真正想要的传统早餐是什么样的。”“We’ve discovered that there is a north-south divide when it comes to certain breakfast items. In the north, for example, they prefer unsmoked bacon and they insist on black pudding and brown sauce on their Full English. But in the south, they won’t warrant a breakfast without ketchup, smoked bacon and no black pudding。“我们发现了南北在某些早餐菜式上存在差异。比如说在北方,人们更喜欢非烟熏肉,认为全英式早餐里要有黑布丁和棕酱。但在南方,人们不会接受一顿没有番茄酱和烟熏肉的早餐,也不吃黑布丁。“But we’ve crunched the statistics and come up with the definitive Full English breakfast plate as voted for by the majority of Brits。”“但我们得出了一份权威的全英式早餐菜式列表,这是经过英国大多数人的投票后,我们处理投票数据得出的。”The survey reveals that 67% of Brits eat breakfast every day and most -51% - eat breakfast alone。调查显示,67%的英国人每天都会吃早餐,大多数人(51%)是独自吃早餐的。The nation’s favourite breakfast drink? Tea, of course. Some 55% of the UK has a cup of tea when it eats a Full English breakfast. Second favourite is fresh orange juice (41%) and in third is coffee (35%)。英国人最喜欢在早餐喝什么呢?当然是茶。大约55%英国人在吃全英式早餐的时候会喝一杯茶。他们第二喜欢的是鲜橙汁(41%),第三喜欢的是咖啡(35%)。Jo Hudson added: “Our research also discovered that far from being unadventurous, Brits are happy to chance their arm and try new things for breakfast. Lobster Benedict, Eggs Benedict, Breakfast Burgers, Egg amp; Marmite Soldiers, Salmon amp; Scrambled Eggs – more than a third of the nation (34%) have tried all these。琼-哈德森补充道:“我们的调查还发现英国人根本不是不喜冒险,他们很乐意在早餐的时候尝尝新东西。龙虾松饼、火腿蛋松饼、早餐汉堡、鸡蛋配面包条、鲑鱼配炒鸡蛋——超过三分之一的英国人(34%)都尝过这些。History of the full English全英式早餐的历史The first English Breakfast was mentioned in recipes around 1840 but the was not fixed it could include halibut, whiting, figs, pheasant, kidneys on toast, and pork pie”。英式早餐最早是在1840年左右的菜谱中被提及的,但菜式并不固定,可能会有大比目鱼、牙鳕、无花果、野鸡、吐司配腰子和猪肉馅饼。That legend of the cookbook Mrs Beeton in her household management book of 1861 recorded breakfast as: “The following list of hot dishes may perhaps assist our ers in knowing what to provide for the comfortable meal called breakfast. Broiled fish, such as mackerel, whiting, herrings, dried haddocks, mutton chops and rump-steaks, broiled sheep’s kidneys, sausages, plain rashers of bacon, bacon and poached eggs, ham and poached eggs, omelets, plain boiled eggs, oeufs-au-plat, poached eggs on toast, muffins, toast, marmalade, butter。”在传奇级食谱——比顿夫人1861年的家庭管理手册中,她对早餐的记录是:“在准备一顿令人舒适的早餐时,以下的热菜列表或许能帮助读者选择做什么菜。烤鱼(如鲭鱼、牙鳕、鲱鱼)、黑线鳕鱼干、羊排骨和羊肉排、烤绵羊腰子、总管腰子、香肠、熏肉片、熏肉配煮鸡蛋、火腿配煮鸡蛋、煎蛋卷、水煮鸡蛋、煎蛋、煮鸡蛋配吐司、松饼、吐司、果酱、黄油。”During the Second World War due to a shortage of bacon and eggs breakfast became a rare luxury but by 1956 half the British population were still having a cooked breakfast even if it was just a boiled egg。二战期间,由于熏肉和鸡蛋短缺,早餐变成了罕有的奢侈品。但直到1956年,仍然有一半的英国人吃做好的早餐,即使有时只有一个煮鸡蛋。An Ulster version includes potato b and soda farls, Welsh includes laverb, eaten fried with bacon and cockles. In the North Midlands, oatcakes sometimes replace fried b and the Scots includes tattie scones and Lorne sausage。阿尔斯特(位于北爱尔兰)版本的早餐中有土豆面包和苏打薄饼;威尔士版本的则有莱佛面包,跟熏肉和鸟蛤一起炸着吃。在英格兰中部地区偏北的地方,人们有时候会用燕麦饼代替煎面包,而苏格兰早餐会有土豆煎饼和方形香肠。A typical full English has approximately 1190 calories。一顿标准的全英式早餐大约含有1190卡路里。 /201509/399358

HONG KONG — When Jin Xin first started selling imported premium beer a decade ago, his bar manager predicted that it would take a month or two just to sell a single case. But within a few years business picked up, and soon customers started frequenting the bar for its India pale ales and other European beers.香港——金鑫十年前刚开始销售进口优质啤酒的时候,他的酒吧经理预计或许一、两个月才能卖出一箱。但过了几年,酒吧生意就兴旺了起来,顾客很快开始在这里流连,饮用印度淡啤酒和其他欧洲啤酒。Now, one of Mr. Jin’s bars, NBeerPub, tucked away in a laid-back part of Beijing’s old town, buzzes with young Chinese customers ordering imports like Delirium Tremens, Lindemans Framboise and Brewdog Punk IPA. Mr. Jin even sold a bottle of Brewmeister Snake Venom, a high-alcohol barleywine-style beer from Scotland, for about 2,700 renminbi, or more than 0.金鑫的一个酒吧牛啤堂(NBeerPub)坐落在北京老城区里的一块休闲之处,现在有很多中国年轻人光顾这里,饮用Delirium Tremens、Lindemans Framboise和Brewdog Punk IPA之类的进口啤酒。金鑫甚至把苏格兰酿造的高度数麦芽啤酒Brewmeister Snake Venom卖到了大约2700元人民币一瓶。“Slowly, Chinese people have more money in their pocket,” Mr. Jin, 43, said in his apartment, where over 6,000 bottles from more than 60 countries filled the shelves. “After they have money, some want something better in terms of taste as well as lifestyle, especially young people.”“慢慢的,中国人口袋里钱多了,”43岁的金鑫在他的公寓里说,酒架上摆放着6000多瓶来自世界60多个国家的酒。“有了钱之后,有的人就向往更好的口味,更好生活方式,尤其是年轻人。”As tastes rapidly change, Chinese consumers are swapping mass-produced local beers for imports and local craft beers.中国消费者的口味迅速变化,他们正在从大规模生产的本地啤酒转向国内外的精酿啤酒。It is the type of opportunity that is at the heart of Anheuser-Busch InBev’s 6 billion deal to buy SABMiller, its rival global brewer. While major markets in Europe and the ed States have been sluggish, developing markets like China offer a growing customer base and the potential for a stronger profit.百威英(Anheuser-Busch InBev)斥资1060亿美元收购对手南非米勒(SABMiller)啤酒公司,就是看准了这样的机遇。虽然在欧美主要市场一直低迷,但像中国这样的发展中市场为他们提供了不断扩大的顾客群和较强的盈利潜力。The Chinese middle class is swelling with young, affluent professionals who are more willing to spend money on brands and who are experienced travelers looking for a taste of other countries back home. And in China, most beer is still considered affordable. So sales have held up relatively well even as wine, the Chinese spirit baijiu and other more expensive liquors have been hit by the country’s anticorruption crackdown and the slowing economy.中国中产阶级的规模正在蓬勃壮大,年轻富裕的专业人士更愿意把钱花在品牌上,经验丰富的旅行者回到国内后也想追寻其他国家的滋味。而在中国,人们仍然认为大多数啤酒的价格很亲民。因此,虽然像葡萄酒、白酒和其他比较昂贵的酒类受到了中国反腐行动和经济放缓的冲击,但啤酒的销售形势相对较好。“It’s an escape route from maturity in the West,” said Spiros Malandrakis, a senior analyst of alcoholic drinks at the research firm Euromonitor International, referring to the established markets of the ed States and Europe.“这是逃离西方成熟市场的一条出路,”酒精饮料研究机构欧睿国际(Euromonitor International)的高级分析师斯皮罗斯·马兰拉基思(Spiros Malandrakis)说,他指的是美国和欧洲的成熟市场。In China, Anheuser-Busch InBev and SABMiller are betting on premium products.在中国,百威英和南非米勒把赌注押在了高端产品上。The two beer behemoths were among the first international entrants into China in the 1990s and initially teamed with local brewers. At the time, domestic breweries produced beer of inconsistent quality, but they were quickly multiplying, and consumption was soaring along with disposable incomes.这两家啤酒巨头都属于1990年代进入中国,与本地酿酒商合作的第一批跨国公司。当时,中国国内的酿酒厂生产的啤酒质量很不稳定,但产量很快就成倍增长,销量也随着民众可配收入的提高而飙升。SABMiller took a 49 percent stake in a joint venture that makes Snow, which is now China’s best-selling beer brand. Anheuser-Busch InBev has since bought Harbin and Sedrin, two other top domestic brands. Together, the international brewers account for about one-third of the overall beer market in China.雪花啤酒是目前中国销量最大的啤酒品牌,南非米勒持有这家合资公司49%的股份。百威英后来收购了中国的另外两个顶级品牌哈尔滨啤酒和雪津啤酒(Sedrin)。整体来说,国际酿酒商占据了中国啤酒市场的大约三分之一。As they pursue a merger, given their dominance, Anheuser-Busch InBev and SABMiller are expected to prune their portfolio in China to keep regulators happy, though it remains unclear where the trimming will be done. Some analysts think they would be able financially to justify the sale of a big domestic brand like Snow, since the market is moving toward premium offerings.鉴于百威英和南非米勒的市场配地位,双方在寻求兼并的时候,可能会削减在中国持有的资产,以免引起管理机构的不满,不过目前还不清楚具体将如何调整。一些分析人士认为,从财务角度看,它们出售像雪花啤酒这样的中国大品牌是合理的,因为市场正朝着高端产品迁移。“They might be forced to divest, but it might not be the end of the world for them, because Snow is not necessarily the price point for them,” said Shaun Rein, founder of China Market Research in Shanghai. “Consumers are looking for better quality.”“它们可能会被迫撤资,但这或许不是世界末日,因为雪花啤酒对它们来说未必就是价值点,”市场研究机构上海CMR集团的创始人雷小山(Shaun Rein)说。“消费者正在寻求更高的品质。”When the deal was announced, Anheuser-Busch InBev said it would “promptly and proactively” resolve any regulatory issues in China.兼并交易宣布的时候,百威英表示,将“迅速而积极”地解决中国的任何监管问题。The focus follows the shift in the market in recent years.对于中国的关注源于近几年市场的变化。Imports have swiftly grown to 1.4 billion renminbi in 2013, or around 0 million, from 335 million renminbi in 2009. But the total volume of beer sales in China has dipped of late.啤酒进口额从2009年的3.35亿元人民币迅速增长至2013年的14亿元,但啤酒在中国的总体销售量最近有所下降。Homegrown craft beers are gaining favor. Beijing is home to about half a dozen microbreweries, and others have popped up in cities across China.本土精酿啤酒正受到人们的青睐。北京本地有大约六家小型精酿啤酒商,中国其他城市也纷纷涌现出这样的啤酒商。At the Jing-A Brewing Taproom in Beijing, the owners, transplants from Connecticut and Toronto, serve American-inspired beers with local flair, including Worker’s Pale Ale, Airpocalypse Double IPA and Mandarin Wheat.北京的京A啤酒酿造作坊的老板来自美国康涅狄格州和加拿大多伦多,他们将美国风味与本地特色结合起来,供应工人淡色啤酒、空气大爆表双IPA和京城特白小麦啤酒。Ji Chen, a banker, developed a taste for fine beer as a student in Belgium. When he returned to China, Mr. Chen, now 28, started buying imported beer at the supermarket and hanging out at brew pubs.现年28岁的纪晨在工作,他在比利时留学的时候喜欢上了精酿啤酒。回到中国后,纪晨开始购买超市的进口啤酒,流连于精酿啤酒酒吧。“I don’t think it’s expensive,” he said, sipping the Flying Fist IPA at Jing-A. “If you go out to drink at a bar, you would have to spend this much for any drink you get. And craft beers here are of good quality.”“我觉得不贵,”纪晨在京A酒吧抿了一口飞拳IPA说。“你去任何一家酒吧,买什么酒都得花这些钱。这里的精酿啤酒质量非常好。”The high-end varieties can fatten a company’s bottom line.高端产品可以提升企业的利润。“All of this premiumization and trading up is the biggest revenue driver of our industry,” Jean Jereissati, Anheuser-Busch InBev’s China president, said at an investor seminar in September. “And it is very relevant for our company.”“这种产品高端化和消费升级是我们行业最大的营收动力,”百威英中国区总裁让·热雷萨蒂(Jean Jereissati)去年9月参加投资者研讨会时说。“这与我们公司密切相关。”Anheuser-Busch InBev and SABMiller are digging deep into their cooler of longtime brands in the hope of attracting more discerning customers. In part, they are promoting the provenance of their brands.百威英和南非米勒都在深挖公司旗下历史悠久的品牌,希望吸引更多目光挑剔的顾客。它们的部分策略是宣传品牌的起源。When Budweiser Supreme was introduced, the company projected a detailing the recipe’s origins and ingredients onto a giant bottle in various Chinese cities. Against a striking soundtrack, the company described how the beer had the “rich aroma of wheat malt flavor and aristocratic bearing.”在中国多座城市推广百威金樽啤酒(Budweiser Supreme)时,该公司把一段视频映在了巨大的瓶子上,视频详细讲述了配方的起源和原料的选择。伴随着令人扣人心弦的音乐,该公司介绍道,这款啤酒“有香浓麦味,贵族的气质”。Lifestyle, too, is major selling point.生活方式也是一个重要的卖点。Other advertisements featured Budweiser Supreme being poured in a restaurant by a waiter wearing white gloves. In the summer, women in their 20s, wearing dresses with Corona or Budweiser logos and sometimes long white boots, were often seen milling around the bars and chatting with customers in the upscale Sanlitun area of Beijing.其他广告展示了戴着白手套的务员在餐厅为客人倒百威金樽啤酒的场景。夏天的时候,经常会在消费水平较高的北京三里屯看到一些20多岁的女性,身穿印有科罗娜(Corona)或百威商标的裙子,有时还穿着白色长靴,穿梭于各个酒吧与顾客聊天。“They put a lot of money into the marketing, the heritage — all those things make consumers pay more for it,” said Jonny Forsyth, a global drinks analyst at Mintel, a research firm. “That’s what’s been missing in China. Younger people are more receptive to it.”“他们花了很多钱营销,宣传品牌传承,促使顾客花更多钱消费,”市场调研机构明特尔(Mintel)全球饮品行业分析师容尼·福赛思(Jonny Forsyth)说。“这是中国缺乏的东西,年轻人更容易接受。”The message is getting through to consumers, who are increasingly willing to pay for beer.这种理念已在消费者当中传开,他们愈发愿意为啤酒花钱。At Heaven Supermarket, a store and bar with a backpacker vibe, Chen Jing, 30, browsed through the imported beer with her boyfriend, both of them clutching beers that cost about 50 renminbi each, or nearly . A bottle of Snow from the grocery store next door cost just 1.9 renminbi, or about 30 cents.在有着背包客气质的酒铺兼酒吧天堂超市,30岁的陈晶和男朋友在浏览各种进口啤酒,两人都拿了每瓶价格大约50元的啤酒。而隔壁小卖部的雪花啤酒每瓶才卖1.9元。Most of the bottles going through the checkout at Heaven are overseas varieties like Hoegaarden, Corona and Budweiser, selling for 15 renminbi. And the store, across the road from a Rolls-Royce and Bentley dealership, is not short of people perusing more expensive beers, which can cost up to 100 renminbi, or about .天堂超市销量最高的品类是福佳(Hoegaarden)、科罗娜和百威等进口啤酒,每瓶售价15元人民币。这家位于劳斯莱斯和宾利专卖店对面的商店并不缺少购买昂贵啤酒的顾客,这些啤酒的价格会高达100元人民币一瓶。Ms. Chen started drinking foreign beer after vacationing around China and Southeast Asia. She has taken such a liking to the beer culture that she is planning a holiday in Belgium.陈晶在中国及东南亚旅行之后便开始喝外国啤酒了。她深爱啤酒文化,正在计划去比利时度假。“I would rather be spending money on few quality beers than buying lots of cheap beers and feeling full and headachy,” she said. “It’s more about the lifestyle I choose than simply drinking.”“我宁愿花钱买几瓶好酒,也不愿意买一堆便宜货,喝完了感觉很胀,还头疼,”她说。“这不只是喝酒的问题,更多的是我选择的生活方式。” /201601/423723

Policy of Pacification Through Marriage西汉和亲Marrying daughters of the Han imperial family to the rulers of the minority groups was one of the foreign policies of pacification in the Western Han Dynasty (206B.C.----8A.D.).将皇家的女儿嫁给少数名族是西汉时期(公元前206年至公元8年)的和平外交政策之一。The policy had gone through two stages.这个政策分为两步。At first, Han rulers took the initiative to marry daughters of the royal family and offer valuables of all kinds so that the Huns could stop harassing the northern border of the empire.首先汉朝皇帝主动让皇家的女儿出嫁,然后给予各种珍惜物品,这样匈奴人就会停止骚扰大汉帝国的北部边境。When Emperor Wudi was in power, it was the Huns who proposed to Han for marriage.汉武帝时期,匈奴主动向汉朝求婚。In the reign of Emperor Wudi, substantial resources were available to him as a result of his own successful policies as well as those of his predecessors.武帝执政时期,由于他和先帝们成功的政策,他拥有了大量的富余物资。Consequently, he was in a position to take an active and offensive stand against threats of invasion.因此,他在对抗进犯的威胁时占据了主动的地位。He sent three expeditions led by Wei Qing and Huo Qubing against the Huns in 127B.C, 121B.C and 119B.C respectively.他在公元前127年、公元前121年和公元前119年分别派出了三由卫青和霍去病带领的远征队。By these actions, he drove them into the far north of Gobi, thus maintaining the safety of the Hexi Corridor.通过这些举措,武帝让他们远达隔壁北部,保障了河西走廊的安全。The threat from the Huns was resolved;however, they did not reach an agreement on the issue of the policy of pacification through marriage.匈奴人带来的威胁解除了;但是,他们并未就和亲政策达成一致。During the reign of Emperor Xuandi, the Huns was aly in decline.汉宣帝时期,匈奴已处于颓败之势,And the ruler Huhan decided to pledge allegiance to Han by sending his son to Han as a promise.匈奴首领呼韩决定将自己的儿子送到汉朝当人质来向大汉宣誓效忠。Emperor Yuandi, to further a good relationship between the Huns and the Han people, married Wang Zhaojun, a beauty at that time, to the Khan.汉元帝,通过将当朝的一位美女王昭君嫁给可汗与匈奴和匈奴人民加深了良好的关系。This action not only stabilized the relationship between the Han Dynasty and the Huns, but promoted economic and cultural exchanges between them.这项举措不仅稳定了汉朝与匈奴的关系,还加强了它们之间的经济与文化交流。Meanwhile, Han also marry daughters of royal families to rulers of Wusun tribe for pacification.同时,汉朝还将公主嫁给乌孙部和亲。In 71B.C, Han in alliance with Wusun tribe gave the Huns a fatal defeat from which it never recovered.公元前71年,大汉与乌孙的联合给了匈奴致命一击,使其难以恢复。The policy of marriage for pacification was an important policy helpful to the economic and cultural exchanges between Han and minority groups.和亲政策是对于汉朝和少数名族间经济与文化交流的一项重要政策。 /201510/397350

A woman I know who does online dating says she is often baffled by the seduction techniques of the men she meets. In person, most just boast to her at great length. Few of them stumble on the winning formula: ask her about herself, and actually listen.我认识的一位女性在网络上征婚,她说她遇到的男人们的把技巧经常让她困惑不已。他们大多数人只是长篇大论地自吹自擂。很少有人能够找到制胜之道:即让她说说自己的事情,并且认真倾听。Listening may be the key social skill. But humans have probably been bad listeners since Adam and Eve ignored God’s edict and ate the forbidden fruit. Now many experts believe that the digital era of endless stimuli has made things worse. “The average human attention span in 2000 was 12 seconds, but by 2013 it was only 8 seconds (one second shorter than a goldfish!)” concluded Microsoft Canada, after doing research on 2,000 Canadians.倾听或许是至关重要的社交技能。然而,自打亚当和夏娃无视上帝的命令偷尝禁果以来,人类很可能一直都是糟糕的倾听者。如今很多专家认为,充斥着无穷刺激的数字化时代让事情变得更糟。“在2000年,人的专注时长平均为12秒,到2013年降为仅8秒(比金鱼还短1秒!)”微软(Microsoft)加拿大分公司在对2000名加拿大人进行研究后得出了这样的结论。I have studied good listeners — including spies, therapists and reporters (not columnists) — and tried to work out how they do it. The first step is to bin the preconception that the person you’re talking to is boring and predictable. Most people do have something worth saying, if only you can help them say it.我研究过好的倾听者——包括间谍、治疗师和记者(不包括专栏作家)——试图搞清楚他们是如何做到的。第一步是要抛弃先入之见,即对话者是乏味无趣的。大多数人的确有一些值得一说的事情,只要你能够帮助他们说出来。The second step is, therefore, to shut up. You may be aching to dive in and interrupt the speaker with a brilliant insight or joke, but don’t bother. He doesn’t want to listen to you either. As the British-spy-turned-Soviet-double-agent George Blake points out in his autobiography, “Most people are not particularly interested in your opinions or what you have to say, but very interested in voicing their own opinions and telling their own story.”因此,第二步是闭嘴。你可能很想热切地加入其中,以一个绝妙的洞见或笑话打断说话人,但不要这么做。他也不想听你说。就像曾是英国间谍,后来又成为苏联双面间谍的乔治布莱克(George Blake)在其自传中指出的那样:“大多数人对你的观点或者你要说什么并不是特别感兴趣,但却非常喜欢表达自己的观点和讲述他们自己的故事。”Let them tell it. Blake suggests “making an occasional encouraging remark or asking for an elucidation”. Let silences fall, because people will often blurt things out just to fill them. A London lawyer tells me he always warns clients that when the barrister cross-examining them goes quiet (often simply to leaf through his notes), they need to keep their mouths shut.让他们说出来。布莱克建议“偶尔鼓励一下说话者,或者要他们说清楚一些”。保持静默,为了填补这种静默,人们往往会脱口而出一些事情。一位伦敦律师告诉我,他总是警告他的客户,在盘问他们的出庭律师安静下来时(通常只是为了翻阅他的笔记),他们需要闭上嘴。When people are listened to, they can come out with the most amazing things. If someone tells you something like, “I’m thinking of murdering my husband,” show no surprise and just nod understandingly. The bad role model to bear in mind is the Woody Allen character in Crimes and Misdemeanors listening to his sobbing sister recount, in graphic detail, an erotic encounter gone wrong. The Allen character covers his eyes and shouts, “Oh, oh, oh! That’s so disgusting. My God, that’s the worst thing I ever heard in my life … Barbara, you idiot!”在有人倾听的时候,人们会说出最令人惊奇的事情。如果有人告诉你“我在考虑谋杀我的丈夫”这类的事情,不要面露惊讶,只需理解地点点头。要牢记于心的坏榜样是伍迪縠伦(Woody Allen)在《罪与错》(Crimes and Misdemeanors)中饰演的角色,在听着一把鼻涕一把泪,绘声绘色地讲述她那糟糕的艳遇。艾伦饰演的角色双手掩面,大声叫喊“哦,哦,哦!太恶心了。我的老天,这是我这辈子听过的最恶心的事儿了……芭芭拉,你这个蠢货!”Good listeners ask questions, but not too many. Journalists know that the best moment in the interview often comes when you put away your pen and say, “Thank you so much for your time.” Then the interviewee — freed from your barrage of questions — tells you the thing she had been wanting to say all along.好的倾听者会提出问题,但不会太多。记者们知道,采访中最好的时刻,是你收起录音笔然后说,“非常感谢你抽出时间接受采访。”然后,从你连珠炮般的问题中解放出来的受访者会告诉你她一直渴望吐露的事情。When good listeners do speak, they don’t bother repeating their favourite lines. Listening to anyone halfway interesting is a stimulus to think of something new. The German writer Heinrich von Kleist called this “the gradual completion of thoughts while speaking”. In business, skilled listeners will use the other person’s words to make a sale. A consultant I know says that instead of telling clients what he has to offer, he usually asks them, “What’s top of mind?” If the client replies, “We’re just working out how to replace all our workers with robots,” he can then say, “It so happens we’ve got just the product for that.” Every conman knows that what you really sell people are their own fantasies.好的倾听者真正开口的时候,不会重复他们最喜欢的句子。听一个不那么有意思的人说话,会刺激倾听者想到新的东西。德国作家海因里希冯克莱斯特(Heinrich von Kleist)称,这是“在说话的同时逐渐完善思路”。在商业活动中,有技巧的倾听者会用别人的话做成生意。一位我认识的营销顾问告诉我,他通常不会告诉客户他能提供什么,而是问他们“你们最想要的是什么?”如果客户回答说,“我们正在想办法用机器人替换我们所有的工人,”那么他就可以说,“这样啊,我们正好有相应的产品。”每个骗子都知道,你真正兜售给人们的是他们自己的幻想。There is one big occupational hazard in listening. Sometimes you will encounter someone who is boring and predictable. This person will engage in one or all of boasting, solipsism, house-price talk, route talk (“The M1 was totally blocked, so … ”), diet talk (the word “carbs” is a warning signal) and current-affairs clichés (“Politicians! They’re all in it for themselves, that’s what I say”). But if the bore has you tied up in a hostage-style situation, then get him to talk directly about his own life. People’s experiences are usually more interesting than their views, and a good listener can come away with unexpected knowledge of life in Düsseldorf or the economics of dentistry.倾听者可能会遭遇一种“职业性危害”。有时你会遇到某个乏味无趣的人。这个人可能在谈话中有以下其中一种乃至全部举动:自夸、 唯我、谈房价、谈交通(“1号线地铁完全堵死了,所以……”)、谈饮食(“碳水化合物”是一个警告信号)和有关时事的陈词滥调(“政客们!他们全都只顾自己,这就是我说的”。)但是,如果无聊感已经把你绑架了,让他直接谈一谈他自己的生活。人们的经历通常比他们的观点更有趣,好的倾听者在结束谈话离开时,会意外了解到杜塞尔多夫(Düsseldorf)的生活情况或者牙医这一行的经济情况。Even when the listener learns nothing worthwhile, he can achieve a useful seduction. I once had a boss who was the smartest man in the room. After taking over the department, he invited the lowliest grunts out to lunch one by one. He’d ask each one, “So what do you think we should change?” and then listen while the grunt spouted all the grievances she had been storing up for years. I suspect that the boss didn’t care about the grunts’ views. He aly knew exactly what he wanted to change. But when he did make changes, the grunts united in support of the first person who had ever listened to them. Today the guy is chief executive of a global media company, so he probably doesn’t have to listen any more.就算倾听者没有了解到什么有价值的东西,他也可能成功地“诱惑”了对方,这是有用的。我曾经有个老板聪明绝顶。在接管部门以后,他一个一个地邀请级别最低的员工吃午餐。他会问每一个人,“那你觉得我们该改变些什么呢?”然后倾听这名员工把积蓄多年的苦水倒出来。我怀疑这名老板并不在乎这些员工的观点。他那时已经非常清楚他自己想要改变什么。但他真正进行改革的时候,这些员工联合起来持第一个真正倾听他们的人。今天这个人已经是一家跨国媒体公司的首席执行官,因此他很可能无需再倾听了。 /201602/427730


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