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重医大附一院激光美容安中文

2020年02月18日 00:51:52 | 作者:百度健康 | 来源:新华社
White spots on nails are very common, everyone at some point in their lives experience them. These spots can indicate a few different things, because the different patterns of white spots may be symptomatic of different causative conditions, but the underlying theme is that your body is trying to tell you that you are not healthy. It#39;s essential to know the causes and take respective measures to treat them.指甲上出现白色斑点是很常见的,几乎每个人都可能会遇到。这些小斑点因形状等的不同,会反映出我们身体可能存在的不同问题。无论哪一种,这其实都是再告诉我们:我们可能需要关注自己的身体健康状况了。所以我们有必要知道白色斑点出现的原因,以及针对不同原因而需要采取不同的措施。Nail Injuries指甲受伤The white spots on the fingernails, which can appear as dots or lines, are called leukonychia. An injury to the base of the nail, which is also known as the matrix, can result in the appearance of these white spots on the nails.指甲上的白色斑点,有时会成点状或线状出现,这叫做白甲病。可能会由于指甲根部(也叫基质)部分受伤而导致。Due to the fact that these spots take some time to appear after the injury, you may have forgotten all about the injury. Some examples of the types of injuries that can cause these spots are banging the finger on the door or banging it on the countertop or with a hammer. Having manicures done frequently can cause injuries to the nails as well.这类白色斑点可能会在受伤很长一段时间之后才会出现,所以你可能都不记得指甲曾受过什么伤了。导致这类斑点出现的指甲受伤类型包括指甲撞在门上或工作台上或被锤子砸到等。过度频繁的剪指甲也会导致指甲受伤。Allergic Reaction过敏反应There are times when white spots can appear on the nails due to an allergic reaction to nail polish, nail hardener or even nail polish remover.有时因涂指甲油或者卸甲水时导致的过敏反应也会使指甲上长出白色小班点。Zinc Deficiency缺锌Zinc is a metal that is normally found in the human body. A zinc deficiency in a person commonly causes white spots or streaks in their nails.锌是人体所必须的一种微量元素。体内缺锌经常会导致指甲上出现白色斑点或白色细条。A change in the person#39;s diet can help to resolve this problem.改善饮食能帮助解决这个问题。Some foods that can help to add zinc to the person#39;s diet are oysters, baked beans, yogurt, crab, beef shanks, pork shoulder, spinach, nuts and whole grains.富含锌的食物包括牡蛎、烤豆、酸奶、蟹肉、牛腱肉、猪肩肉、菠菜、坚果以及全部的谷物。Protein Deficiency缺乏蛋白质A protein deficiency in a person will show as horizontal bands that extend across the nail bed. These lines are known as Muehrcke#39;s lines. Due to the fact that these lines are on the nail bed and not on the nail plate, they will not simply grow out with your nails.体内缺乏蛋白质在指甲上的表现就是甲床上会出现横条纹,这种横条纹叫做米尔克线。由于这些条纹是长在甲床而不是甲面上,所以它们不会随着指甲一起生长。When the protein levels return to normal, these lines will usually just disappear. There are some rare cases in which these lines can be indicative of liver disease. There is a way to test to see if these lines are Muehrcke#39;s lines or not. Just press down on the nail plate, and if the lines disappear then they are Muehrcke#39;s lines.当体内蛋白质含量回归正常,这些条纹一般就会消失。在一些罕见案例中,这种条纹还可能成为肝病的预兆。有一种方法可以检测这种条纹是否属于米克尔线:按住指甲甲面,如果条纹消失那么它们就是米克尔线。Recommendations of protein-rich foods: Turkey beast, fish (salmon, tuna), pork loin, lean beef, tofu, beans, yogurt, soymilk, nuts and seeds.富含蛋白质的食物包括:鱼类(三文鱼、金鱼等)、猪里脊肉、豆腐、豆类、酸奶、豆浆、坚果及种子等。Calcium Deficiency缺钙Possibly because of the numerous calcium enriched nail strengtheners on the market, there is a widesp belief that calcium deficiency causes leukonychia.也许因为市面上有很多卖加钙的指甲增强剂,所以很多人都认为缺钙会导致白甲病。In order to treat calcium deficiency, you can simply add calcium to your diet, drinking orange juice or any other calcium fortified food or drinks will help.如果缺钙,可以通过调整饮食来补钙,如多喝橙汁、多吃含钙量高的食物。Fungal Superficial Onychomycosis真菌感染造成的甲癣A subtype of an infection that commonly appears on the toenails is known as white superficial onychomycosis. Fungi are the cause of these white spots and they appear on the nail plate and then they sp to the nail bed. This disorder presents with the toenails appearing flaky at first and then the nail becomes thick. Nail splitting then occurs and there is significant pain while wearing shoes.容易出现在脚趾甲上的一种真菌感染亚型叫做白色表浅性甲癣。真菌是这类白色斑点产生的原因,白色斑点先是在指甲甲面出现,之后又蔓延到甲床上。这种情况下,脚趾甲先是看起来很薄,后来又变厚,之后还会裂缝,穿鞋子的时候会很疼。There are some other disorders that can mimic this disorder, so in order to diagnosis this form of onychomycosis, a doctor can clip a piece of the toenail and examine it under a microscope or they may choose to place the clipping into a special container and watch it over time to see what type of fungus grows on it.因为这种病症容易和其他病症混淆,所以为了确诊这种形式的甲癣,医生常会剪下一块脚趾甲放在显微镜下检查,或是放在一种特殊的容器中,观察一段时间以确定真菌的种类。An oral anti-fungal medication in combination with a topical ointment is normally recommended. This will usually clear this condition up within three months, although it is important to be aware of the fact that the topical ointment generally will not fully penetrate the nail plate to reach the nail bed.如果得了这种甲癣,通常推荐口抗真菌药物及外用药膏。通常三个月之后,症状就会消失。不过要注意的是,外用药膏并不会通过指甲甲面直达甲床的。Serious Diseases一些严重疾病There are some serious diseases like liver disease, Kidney disease, Anemia, etc., that present symptoms like white spots on the nails. Therefore, it is extremely important to see a doctor if you notice any discolorations in your nails. The earlier you see the doctor the more likely it is to treat the condition effectively.指甲上出现白色斑点还有可能是一些严重疾病如肝病、肾病、贫血等的先兆。所以如果你发现指甲有任何褪色等异常情况请及时看医生。越早看医生,越能有效解决问题。Home Remedies for White Spots on Nails指甲上出现白色斑点的家庭疗法Cover with Nail Polish涂指甲油In order to hide these white spots, you can use nail polish, preferably a light shade of pink or peach.为了盖住白色斑点,可以涂指甲油,建议涂那种浅粉色或粉红色。Moisturize保湿Maintaining a good level of moisture in the hands is important. A good tip for this, is massaging the hands and fingernails with either vitamin E or hand lotion, which can be applied to the skin on the side of the nails as well.保持手部湿润非常重要。可以在手上涂抹维E或护手霜之后手指、指甲以及指甲旁边的皮肤。Let It Grow Out等着白斑点和指甲一起长长然后剪掉Patience is of the utmost importance when letting the white spots on the nails grow out. With time they will grow over the smile line, which is the separation between the bed of the nail and the actual growth of the nail. Once this occurs, you can clip, cut or file them down, but it is extremely important that you don#39;t take off too much, it is necessary to leave some actual growth so you do not damage the nail bed.要等着白色斑点和指甲一起长长之后再剪掉需要的是耐心。等到白色斑点随着指甲长到可以修剪的部分时再剪掉。记住一定不要剪得太短,要留一些长度来保护甲床。Keep a Balanced Diet饮食均衡Maintaining a balanced diet is essential for the overall health of the entire body, including the fingernails.均衡的饮食对包括指甲在内的身体各部分的健康状况来说都是必须的。#8226;Have More Calcium-Rich Foods and Drinks多摄食富含钙的食物和饮品#8226;Eat More Vitamin C Rich Fruits多吃富含维C的水果#8226;Consume More Zinc, Iron Rich Foods多吃含锌、铁等元素的食物 /201412/348361

DAVIS, Calif. — IT’S commonplace to call our cats “pets.” But anyone sharing a cat’s household can tell you that, much as we might like to choose when they eat in the morning, or when they come inside for the night, cats are only partly domesticated.加利福尼亚州戴维斯——我们的猫通常被称为“宠物”。但任何一个跟猫共同生活的人都会告诉你,我们虽然很想决定它们早上进食或者晚上进屋的时间,但它们并没有被完全驯化。The likely ancestors of the domestic dog date from more than 30,000 years ago. But domestic cats’ forebears join us in the skeletal record only about 9,500 years ago. This difference fits our intuition about their comparative degrees of domestication: Dogs want to be “man’s best friend”; cats, not so much.家犬的祖先可能出现于3万多年以前。但骨骼化石记录表明,家猫的祖先迟至大约9500年前才进入人类社会。这一差距与我们对两种动物驯化程度差异的直观感受是一致的:想成为“人类最好的朋友”,猫则不然。Fossils are handy snapshots of the past, but a genomic sequence is a time machine, enabling scientists to run evolutionary history backward. The initial sequence of the domestic cat was completed in 2007, but a recent study to which I contributed compared the genomes of the domestic cat and the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and sheds new light on the last 10,000 years of feline adaptations.如果说化石是现成的历史缩影,那基因组序列就是一台时光机,让科学家得以追溯进化的历程。对家猫基因的初步测序是在2007年完成的。但最近,我参与的一项研究比较了家猫和野猫(Felis silvestris)的基因组,可以让人们更好地了解猫在过去1万年间适应环境的过程。Domestic cats are not just wildcats that tolerate humans in exchange for regular meals. They have smaller skulls in relation to their bodies compared with wildcats, and are known to congregate in colonies. But in comparison with dogs, cats have a narrower range of variation in size and form.家猫不仅仅是为了规律饮食,而勉强和人类呆在一起的野猫。与野猫相比,它们头骨与躯干的比例更小;而且众所周知,它们会集群而居。但和相比,不同种类的猫在大小和外形上的差异不是太大。Wesley C. Warren, an author of the study, notes that domestic cats have excellent hunting skills, like their wild ancestors. This, too, supports the notion that cats are only semi-domesticated.研究报告的执笔者之一韦斯利·C·沃伦(Wesley C. Warren)指出,家猫和它们生活在野外的祖先一样,有出色的狩猎技能。这就为家猫只是半驯化动物的观点提供了撑。Comparing the genomes of the wildcat and the domestic cat added much to what we had known. Michael J. Montague, the lead author, told me he’d anticipated that the two genomes would be very similar, but our study found a specific set of differences in genes involved in neuron development. This brain adaptation may explain why domestic cats are docile.比较野猫和家猫的基因组,让我们的既有认知有了极大的拓展。研究报告的第一作者迈克尔·J·蒙塔古(Michael J. Montague)告诉我,他曾经预计两者的基因组会非常相似,但我们在研究中发现了一组涉及神经元发育的特定基因。这种大脑的适应,或许可以解释为什么家猫比较温顺。Scientists have long observed that domesticated species exhibit a suite of strikingly similar traits, from floppy ears to smaller brains, than those of their wild ancestors. Domestication may select for a few similar traits encoded by genetic changes (like smaller brains), but these may produce what we assume are secondary effects (like floppy ears).科学家早就发现,家养物种有着一系列极为相似的特征,如软趴趴的耳朵,以及比野生祖先小的大脑。驯化过程可能会选择一些由基因差异决定的相似特征(如较小的大脑),但这些基因可能又会带来我们眼中的次生效应(如软趴趴的耳朵)。Once they were living among us, cats didn’t need to think so much to stay alive; nor did they need such large jaws after we started feeding them our processed scraps. Hence smaller skulls. The same dynamic holds for dogs: Wolves beat dogs in general intelligence tests.自从和人类生活在一起,猫要生存下去就不需要思考那么多了;以人类的残羹剩饭为食,它们也不再需要大大的下巴了。因此,它们的头骨变小了。也是如此:狼在智力测试中的表现通常好于。By examining patterns in our animals’ genomes, we’ve confirmed that the same sets of genes seem to be targeted again and again in evolution. As far back as Charles Darwin, domestic animals in particular have yielded insights about evolution because we know what sorts of selection pressures they were subject to. After all, it was us they were primarily adapting to.我们通过观察家养动物的基因组图谱确定,在进化过程中,某些特定的基因一再成为选择的目标。早在查尔斯·达尔文(Charles Darwin)的时代,对于家养动物的研究,就帮助拓展了人类对进化过程的认识,因为我们很清楚它们面临着怎样的选择压力。毕竟,它们主要是在适应人类。Which brings us to the genome of one critical tame animal: ourselves, humans. The Nobel Prize-winning zoologist Konrad Z. Lorenz once suggested that humans were subject to the same dynamics of domestication. Our brain and body sizes peaked during the end of the last ice age, and declined with the sp of agriculture.作为一种重要的驯化动物,人类自身的基因组也是进化过程的产物。获得过诺贝尔奖的动物学家康拉德·Z·洛伦茨(Konrad Z. Lorenz)曾表示,人类也受制于同样的驯化机制。我们大脑和躯干的尺寸在最后一个冰川时代结束时达到最高点,继而随着农耕的推广逐渐变小。Instead of poring over the meager fossil record, we can survey patterns of variation across tens of thousands of living individuals. Genomics now provides evidence that humans have been subject to a great deal of natural selection over the past 10,000 years. A beautiful example is the ancestors of Tibetans’ absorption of small portions of the genome of ancient human relatives adapted for living at high altitude.我们不必去钻研匮乏的化石记录,而是可以研究千千万万活人的基因差异。目前,基因组学方面的据表明,人类在过去1万年里一直受到了自然选择的极大影响。一个有力的例子是,西藏人的祖先汲取了少量与其有亲缘关系的适应高海拔生存的古人类的基因。Our cultural flexibility and creativity since the end of the ice age have not freed humans from evolutionary forces, but have opened up novel and startling paths. Thinking of domestication as an evolutionary process that occurs through “artificial” selection creates a false dichotomy of nurture and nature that plays into a conceit of human exceptionalism. In fact, the idea that we are apart from nature, that it is ours to tame and exploit, is an outmoded approach.最后一个冰川时代结束以来,人类的文化适应性和创造力并没让我们摆脱进化力量的影响,而是为这种力量开辟了令人吃惊的新路径。把驯化当成由“人工”选择推动的进化过程,让人们错误地把自然过程和驯化过程分割开来,由此催生出自负的人类例外论。认为人类与自然相分离、人类要驯化和开发自然,其实是一种过时的思维。A more useful interpretation is that over the past 10,000 years, humans fashioned their own ecosystem. We were part of a natural process that altered the landscape. In that light, we can think of the domestic cat as an ecological response to the emergence of parasites (rodents attracted by early Neolithic granaries). The same forces that reshaped the genomes of our domesticates also reshaped ours.一个更有帮助的解释是,在过去的1万年里,人类塑造了自己的生态系统。我们是改造自然面貌的自然过程中的一部分。鉴于此,我们可以这样看:在新石器时代早期,人类储藏谷物的地方就招来了老鼠,而家猫的出现,则是生态系统对这些吃白食的啮齿动物做出的反应。重塑了家养动物基因组的力量,也重塑了我们自己的基因组。No longer roving in small bands subsisting on game and unprocessed plants, we settled down in villages, harvesting the same crops year after year. For millenniums, peasants fed on what we might today term porridge, of various types. Our teeth became smaller — indeed, both dogs and humans show evidence of adaptation to starchy diets.当我们不再组成小群体四处游荡,不再依靠猎物和未经烹调的植物为生,而是在村庄里安定下来,年复一年地收获着同样的作物。数千年来,农民都在食用我们今天称为粥的各种饭食。于是我们的牙齿变小了——的确,和人类都表现出了适应淀粉类食物的迹象。Just as the fur of our mammalian domesticates, freed from the constraint of needing to fade into the landscape, became a riot of diverse colors, human pigmentation started to change and many populations became light-skinned. With a cheek-by-jowl existence, humans and their animals began sharing diseases, remolding the immunity of whole populations, but leaving those who did not experience this co-evolution untouched and vulnerable. Possibly, some pathogens incubated in cats, like Toxoplasma gondii, may even alter human behavior.经过人类驯化的哺乳动物的皮毛,在不需要适应环境的颜色后,变化成了各种各样的颜色。与此相同,人类的色素沉着开始发生变化,许多人群变成了浅肤色。在紧密共处的过程中,人类和他们的动物开始患同样的疾病,从而重塑了整个种族的免疫系统,但那些未曾经历这种共同进化历程的种族,却没有受到影响,因而容易患病。弓形虫等在猫体内育的病原体,甚至可能会改变人类行为。Many of us conceive of our relationship to our pets as analogous to that between a parent and child. But the natural history tells a more pragmatic tale. Cats emerged in the context of profound ecological changes to the post-ice-age landscape wrought by humans.许多人都认为,我们与宠物的关系就如同父母与孩子的关系。但是,自然史讲述了一个更加实际的故事。在冰川时代过后的地貌上,人类造就了显著的生态变化,猫就是在这种背景下出现的。We were the authors of those changes, but in the process of telling that story, we became protagonists within it. One of the essential steps in knowing ourselves, and seeing where we are going, is to look around and take note of how we’ve reshaped those nearest to us, and they us.我们是这些变化的作者,但在讲述这个故事的时候,我们也成了它的主角。在了解我们自身、观察我们将走向何方的过程中,一个关键步骤是环顾四周,研究我们怎样重塑了离我们最近的那些生物,以及它们如何塑造了我们。 /201412/345429

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