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简阳市妇幼保健院诊疗巴中市中医院可以做引产吗With temperatures rising four times faster than anywhere else in Asia, the Tibetan Plateau might soon lose most of its glacier and permafrost, affecting water supplies throughout Asia, Chinese scientists say.青藏高原的气温上升速度比亚洲其它地区快了四倍,中国科学家说青藏高原上绝大部分的冰川和永动层或许不久就将消失殆尽,这将影响亚洲各地的淡水供应。Long known as the ;roof of the world,; the Tibetan Plateau is about the size of Western Europe and supplies water to nearly 2 billion people in Asia as the source of several major rivers, including the Yangze, Mekong, Salween (Gyalmo Ngulchu), Indus, Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers.作为早就闻名遐迩的“世界屋脊”,青藏高原的面积和西欧差不多。这一地区是包括长江、湄公河、萨尔温江、印度河、雅鲁藏布江和黄河在内的几条大河的源头,向亚洲近20亿人供应着淡水。But because of the impact of climate change, the glaciers are retreating rapidly, grasslands are shrinking as desertification expands, regional precipitation has become irregular, water levels are dropping in major rivers and the permafrost is thawing.但受气候变化影响,这里的冰川迅速消退,草原面积不断减小,荒漠化面积不断增加,区域降水反常,几条大河的水位不断下降,永冻层也在持续融化。The melting of Tibetan glaciers, the largest mass of frozen fresh water outside the polar regions, is linked to many environmental consequences both locally and globally, including heat waves in Europe, according to some studies.青藏高原储藏着除两极地区以外最多的冰冻淡水。一些研究显示,这一地区的冰川融化与多种区域性和全球性的环境影响有关,比如欧洲的热浪。Glacial retreat冰川消融Chinese officials estimate Tibet holds 14.5 percent of the worlds total glacier mass. While there are a few different theories on what is causing the glaciers to melt, researchers agree the pace is staggering.中国官方预计西藏地区拥有占全世界14.5%的冰川储量。尽管对引起冰川融化的原因还存在不同说法,但研究者们都认为青藏高原冰川消融的速度是惊人的。Chinas state-run Xinhua news agency reported in April that an average of 247 square kilometers of glacier is disappearing annually, and that some 7,600 square kilometers of glacier, or about 18 percent of the total, has disappeared since the 1950s.今年4月,中国官方的新华社报道,青藏高原平均每年有247平方公里的冰川消融。自上世0年代以来,已经有大约7600平方公里的冰川消失,这占到青藏高原冰川总量的大8%。Zhang Mingxing, a Chinese official who heads the Tibet Mountaineering Administration, said the glacier at the Everest base camp, 5,200 meters above sea level, has aly disappeared. ;There is nothing but stones (left),; he was ed as saying by Xinhua.西藏登山运动管理中心主任张明兴说,在海拔5200米的艾佛勒斯峰(珠穆朗玛峰)大本营区的冰川已经消失。新华社援引他的描述说,那里就剩下石头了。Prior Chinese research of substances within Tibetan glaciers indicated carbon from forest fires, crop burning and domestic cooking stoves from India have caused the melting. While these could be contributing factors, scientists say the global rise in temperatures is indisputably the primary cause.在对冰川内的物质进行研究之后,之前的一些中国研究人员表示,森林大火、焚烧秸秆以及印度家庭做饭用的厨灶等造成的碳排放都导致了青藏高原冰川的融化。科研人员说,尽管可能还有其它因素,但全球气温升高正在成为导致冰川融化的一个无可辩驳的原因。Tibetans say there has been a drastic change of temperature since 1980s. One U.S.-based Tibetan who recently returned to Lhasa expressed shock at seeing the climatological impact on peoples clothing style. ;When I lived in Lhasa, it was very rare that people could walk outside in T-shirts,; said the man, who asked that his name be withheld. ;Now people are walking in shorts!;西藏地区居民表示自上世纪80年代以来,这一地区的气温发生了剧烈的变化。一位居住在美国、不愿透露姓名的西藏人表示当他最近回到拉萨时,他被人们因气候变化导致的穿衣风格的改变震惊了。他说:“当我在拉萨生活的时候,很少能见到人们穿着T恤衫走出户外的。现在走在拉萨街头的人都是短衣短裤了。”National Geographic reported in 2010 that one glacier was retreating by about 300 meters a year, the length of a U.S. football field.《国家地理》杂志在2010年报告一处冰川正在以每年大约300米的速度消退,这与一个美式橄榄球场的长度大致相当。As early as , Chinas leading scientist on glaciers, Qin Dahe, said glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau were melting faster than in any other part of the world. In the short term, he warned, the melt would trigger more flooding and mudslides; in the long term: ;water supplies in the region will be in peril.;早在年,中国从事冰川研究的带头人秦大河就表示青藏高原的冰川消融速度比世界上其它任何地方都快。他曾警告说冰川消融在短期内就可能导致更多的洪水和泥石流,长远看来这一地区的淡水供应将受到威胁。Some researchers have predicted that most of the Himalayan glaciers will be gone in 20 years.一些研究人员已经预测,喜马拉雅山地区的大部分冰川在20年内将消失殆尀?Water needs淡水需求Those shrinking glaciers feed some of the largest rivers that run through China, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia.那些正在消退的冰川是一些世界最大河流的源头,这些河流流经中囀?印度、巴基斯坦、孟加拉囀?缅甸、老挝、泰囀?越南以及柬埔寨;Water is the most important resource that this region has, the common region of Tibet part of China, India, Bhutan and all of that,; said R. Rangachari, honorary scholar at Indias Center for Policy Research and former secretary of the Ministry of Water Resources of India.印度政策研究中心荣誉学者兰加夏里(R. Rangachari)说:“这一区域、也就是由中国的藏区、印度和不丹等等的共同区域所拥有的最重要的资源就是水。”兰加夏里曾担任印度水利部部长,;Water is the key to removing poverty, generation of power, agriculture, et cetera,; he told VOAs Tibetan service.他还对美国之音藏语组说:“水资源是消除贫困、发电和发展农业的关键。”A former researcher of Tibetan Plateau climate change for the Chinese Academy of Science, who spoke on the condition of anonymity, said diminished glacial runoff had aly reduced water levels on the Yangtze and Yellow rivers. ;The headwaters for any major rivers come from (the) Tibetan Plateau and there is (a) lesser water supply to those head rivers,; he said.一位前中国科学院青藏高原气候变化问题研究员表示,在西藏的部分地区,水资源的供应已经在减少,像长江、黄河这样的河流水位也在下降。这位匿名人士还透露:“另一个现象就是对主要河流的供水在减少。源头在青藏高原的主要河流的上游水量在减少,对那些源头河流的供水也在变少。”Chinas Ministry of Water Resources announced in 2013 that as many as 28,000 smaller rivers in China had abruptly disappeared by 2011. While Beijing did not cite specific causes, the anonymous researcher said warming on the Tibetan Plateau was at least partly to blame.中国水利部在2013年公布一项数据,截至2011年,中国有多8000条较小的河流迅速消失。虽然水利部没有提及原因,但那位前中科院研究员表示青藏高原气候变暖是部分原因;Another important reason is the meltdown of the permafrost soil,; which leads to subterranean water drainage, he said. ;Like when you have (a) thick sponge.; The latest research conducted by the Chinese Academy of Science predicted that more than 80 percent of Tibetan Plateau permafrost could be gone by the year 2100, and that almost 40 percent of it would be gone within the ;near future.;他说:“另一个重要原因就是永久冻土融化。”他说,这带来地下水的排水问题,“就像你手里的海绵变厚一样。”中科院的最新研究预测,100年,青藏高原上可能将有超0%的永久冻土消失,有近40%的永久冻土在“不久的将来”就可能消失。Increased risk of conflict冲突风险The apparent changes in the Tibetan Plateau have raised concern about the potential for water-security conflicts in the region, particularly between China and India.青藏高原上明显的气候变化增加了人们对各方,特别是中国和印度,在水资源保障问题上发生冲突的担忧。To mitigate the environmental impact, China has stepped up construction of dams along rivers cascading from the Tibetan Plateau, despite complaints from downstream nations that need the water.在西藏环境发生明显变化的同时,中国不顾下游国家的抱怨,一直在青藏高原的河流上游加紧建设大坝。In fact, the Salween remains the only Tibetan river that has not yet been interrupted by major dams; Tibets Yarlung Tsangpo River, which feeds Indias Brahmaputra River, recently saw construction of a single dam.实际上,在源头在西藏的主要河流中,只有萨尔温河没有重要大坝的阻隔。中国最近在雅鲁藏布江上建成了一座大坝,雅鲁藏布江是印度布拉马普特拉河的源头河流。According to Rangachari, India takes the water issues seriously.兰加夏里表示印度非常重视水资源问题;Nobody wants to hand over their right to do something (especially) what the other is doing,; he said. ;Political boundaries might be created by man, but geography is created by God.;他说:“没人想把做事的权利拱手让人,特别是这件事是别人正在做的。政治界线是人为的,但地理是神定的。来 /201512/414307新都区妇幼保健院好么 Founders who go back to save their company from the brink of extinction have a mixed record. The second coming of Apple’s Steve Jobs was an unequivocal success, while Jerry Yang’s return to Yahoo was an unequivocal failure. And the jury is still out on Michael Dell’s efforts to revive his namesake computer maker.创始人回归公司,希望力挽狂澜,拯救陷入困境的公司,但最终的结果有成功,也有失败。史蒂夫·乔布斯重返苹果公司(Apple)取得了毋庸置疑的成功,但杨致远回归雅虎(Yahoo)却遭遇彻头彻尾的失败。至于迈克尔o戴尔能否带领以其名字命名的电脑公司实现复兴,现在下结论仍然为时尚早。Now HTC, a struggling Taiwan-based smartphone maker, is pinning its hopes of redemption on co-founder and chairwoman Cher Wang. Last year under pressure from agitated investors, Wang, 55, resumed day-to-day involvement. She hasn’t officially assumed a new title—she insists she’s merely there to support current CEO Peter Chou—but she’s actively working on marketing, building relationships with telephone companies that carry HTC devices, and, crucially, helping lift morale among employees, who have been battered by the handset maker’s loss of ?business and an exodus of senior executives.现在,HTC则寄希望于公司联合创始人、董事长王雪红能够拯救这家深陷困局的台湾智能手机制造商。去年,面对不安的投资者施加的压力5岁的王雪红重新开始参与公司的日常运营。她尚未正式担任新的职务——她坚称,自己只是为现任CEO周永明提供持。但她正在积极参与市场营销,与销售HTC设备的电话公司搞好关系,最重要的是,帮助提升员工的士气。经营亏损和大批公司高层出走,一度令员工士气深受打击。It is no surprise that Wang (rhymes with “gong prefers a more behind-the-scenes role at HTC, which she co-founded in 1997. Despite her wealth (estimated net worth: .6 billion) and the fact that she’s the daughter of Taiwanese tycoon Wang Yung-Ching, founder of petrochemicals conglomerate Formosa Plastics Group, Wang maintains a low profile and eschews many of the trappings of wealth. She’s been known to fly on discount carrier Southwest Airlines and favors a uniform of simple black suits. But she has serious technology chops: She founded chipset maker Via Technologies before HTC. “I started HTC because of the vision I had a long time ago,Wang tellsFortune. “I really wanted to do handheld computers.Indeed, HTC stands for “high-tech computer.”在1997年参与创立的HTC公司,王雪红更喜欢隐居幕后,这一点并不意外。虽然自己是亿万富翁(净值预计为6亿美元),而且是石油化工业巨头台塑集团(Formosa Plastics Group)创始人、台湾商界巨擎王永庆的女儿,但王雪红却一直为人低调,生活朴素。她经常乘坐价格低廉的美国西南航空公司(Southwest Airlines)的航班,喜欢穿一套简洁的蓝色套装。但她有着深厚的技术背景:早在HTC之前,她便成立了芯片组制造商威盛科技(Via Technologies)。她告诉《财富》杂志(Fortune):“我之所以创立HTC,是因为很久以前的一个愿望。我很想生产掌上电脑。”事实上,HTC三个字母的含义便是“高科技计算机”。Wang’s combination of humility and tech prowess may be exactly what HTC needs to rebound from its ignominious fall. After bursting on to the scene as a wholesale phone maker for Global 500 companies such as Hewlett-Packard (No. 50 on the Global 500), HTC shifted to marketing phones under its own name. The company scored a big win in 2008 when Google (No. 162) selected HTC to partner with it on the first phone to run on its Android operating system.HTC要想止住颓势,触底反弹,或许正需要王雪红身上的谦卑和技术实力。最初,作为惠普(Hewlett-Packard,世00强第50位)等世00强公司(Global 500)的批发手机制造商,HTC横空出世,后来开始销售以公司名称命名的手机008年,HTC赢得重大胜利。当年,谷歌(Google,世00强第162位)选择HTC作为合作伙伴,HTC手机成为第一款运行安卓(Android)操作系统的手机。For a time HTC was on a roll. Emboldened by its success, management began to focus on high-end devices that would compete with Apple’s AAPL 0.59% iPhone and Samsung’s Galaxy line. Revenue in 2010 climbed to .6 billion. But by Christmas 2011 the company had started to make execution errors. Management missed sales projections, and a critically admired new smartphone, the HTC One X, failed to reverse the decline. Supply issues plagued the company, as did a lack of marketing focus. Even a phone launched with Facebook FB -0.24% in 2013, which featured the social networking giant’s “Facebook Homeinterface, flopped and was quickly discounted by its exclusive carrier, ATamp;T T 0.48% . As HTC fumbled, Apple and Samsung solidified their positions at the top of the mobile food chain. HTC, once the top seller of Android-powered phones, eventually slipped from the list of the world’s top 10 smartphone makers. “In the beginning, the competition was not as severe,says Wang. “We didn’t think marketing was as important—we thought the product was more important than marketing. And we didn’t know how to communicate with the customer.”之后的一段时间,HTC的发展一帆风顺。受到之前成功的鼓舞,公司管理层开始将重点转移到高端设备,以期与苹果的iPhone和三星(Samsung)的Galaxy系列竞争010年,这家公司的收入达到了96亿美元。但011年圣诞节开始,这家公司出现了一系列执行错误。管理层无法达到销售预期,即便广受好评的新智能手机HTC One X也未能扭转局面。供应问题和缺乏营销重心导致公司深受困扰013年,HTC联合社交媒体巨头Facebook发布了一款手机,其中搭载了“Facebook Home”界面,结果却以失败告终。这款手机的独家运营商美国电话电报公司(ATamp;T)很快便开始将这款手机降价处理。而在HTC一路跌跌撞撞的同时,苹果和三星却巩固了在移动市场食物链顶端的位置。曾经最畅销的安卓手机制造商HTC最终被挤出了全球十大智能手机制造商行列。王雪红说:“最初,竞争没有这么激烈。我们当时认为市场营销没有那么重要——我们的观念是,产品比市场营销更重要。我们不知道如何与消费者进行沟通。”Wang’s return has yet to improve HTC’s financial performance. Revenue in 2013 fell 30% to .85 billion, and the company lost .6 million. Revenue for the recent quarter slipped 23% from the year before. And competing with Apple, Samsung, and a growing number of cheaper Chinese manufacturers, isn’t likely to get any easier.目前,王雪红的回归尚未改善HTC的财务业绩。这家公013年的收入减少0%,仅8.5亿美元,损失,460万美元。最近一个季度的收入同比下滑3%。而与苹果、三星和越来越多价格更低廉的中国制造商的竞争将会愈演愈烈。Employees say Wang’s presence has aly started to make a difference. She’s traversed the globe, meeting with employees and key suppliers and customers—including the chairman of China Mobile, the largest cellphone operator in the world by customers. “It’s been inspiring for the organization because you have somebody who’s really kind of an understated icon in the smartphone world,says Jason Mackenzie, president of HTC’s North America operations.但公司员工表示,王雪红的回归已经开始产生影响。她在全球四处奔波,会见员工,拜访主要供应商与客户,包括世界上客户数量最多的手机运营商中国移动(China Mobile)的董事长。HTC北美区业务总裁贾森o麦肯齐说:“她的回归让整个公司备受鼓舞,因为我们有这样一位智能手机业的低调偶像。”Wang comes from a family of accomplished business executives. In addition to her highly successful father, who ran his plastics empire until his death at age 92, her sister Charlene co-founded motherboard maker First International Computer in 1980. Another sibling, Winston, started a China-based semiconductor company. “They are a fascinating family,says Steve Zelencik, the former chief marketing officer of Advanced Micro Devices. Back when Wang started her career, working for her sister’s company in the 1980s, she was in charge of buying components from AMD AMD -2.30% . “She showed up as just a kid out of college, but she adapted quickly,says Zelencik, now retired from the tech industry.王雪红的家族商业人才辈出。她的父亲在92岁去世之前一直运营着自己的塑料帝囀?980年,她的王雪玲参与创立了电脑主板制造商大众电脑(First International Computer)。哥哥王文洋在中国大陆创办了一家半导体公司。超威半导体公司(Advanced Micro Devices,AMD)前首席营销官史蒂夫o契尔尼克说:“他们是一个非常了不起的家族。”上世纪80年代,职业刚刚起步的王雪红在的公司工作,负责从AMD采购组件。目前已从科技行业退休的契尔尼克回忆说:“当时的她就是一个刚刚走出大学校门的孩子,稍微显得有些青涩,但她很快就适应了自己的角色。”In fact, Wang spent much of her teen years learning how to adapt. At 15, she was sent from Taipei, Taiwan, to Berkeley to attend high school and eventually the University of California at Berkeley. A devout Christian, Wang lived with a Jewish host family, where she was exposed to new foods, customs, and responsibilities. “Wednesdays were my day to cook,Wang recalls. “I didn’t know how to, so they soon became Chinese restaurant night.”事实上,王雪红的少年时代一直都在学会适应5岁时,她被从台北送到伯克利读高中,后来就读于加州大学伯克利分校(University of California at Berkeley)。身为一名虔诚的基督徒,王雪红却不得不寄宿在一个犹太家庭。她要接触全新的食物、习俗和责任。王雪红回忆道:“每周三轮到我做饭。我不知道该怎么做,结果,周三很快就变成了中餐馆之夜。”Wang’s mother, Wang Yung-Ching’s second of three partners, eventually also left Taiwan and settled in the Bay Area. “She didn’t take any money with her,says Wang. “She learned English and got her driver’s license when she was 60.”王雪红的母亲、王永庆的二房(王永庆共有三位太太)最终也离开台湾,前往旧金山湾区定居。王雪红说:“她去美国时没有带太多钱。她0岁的时候学会了英语,还考取了驾照。”Wang tears up when she talks about her parents. Her father, clearly a prominent figure in her life, wrote her 10-page letters describing his business experiences. “I had to write back or he would be upset,says Wang during an interview at the Rosewood Hotel in Menlo Park, Calif. (She splits her time between the Bay Area and Taipei, close to where HTC is based.)在谈到父母的时候,王雪红忍不住潸然泪下。很显然,父亲在她的一生中扮演着最重要的角色。他曾给她写0页纸的书信,传授自己的经商经验。王雪红在加州门罗帕克的瑰丽酒店(Rosewood Hotel)接受采访时说:“我必须得回信,否则他会很生气。”(她要经常往返于旧金山湾区和台北,这里靠近HTC的总部。)After spending her formative years with her sister’s company, Wang helped build Via Technologies in the late 1980s. Later, through acquisition and investment, Wang and a small team of executives drifted into the phone business. “At that time I interviewed everyone,Wang says of HTC’s early days. “I would tell them the vision. Peter [Chou] was the first one to believe.”王雪红在的公司渡过性格形成期之后,她在上世0年代末帮助创建了威盛科技公司。后来,通过收购和投资,王雪红和几位高管逐渐转入手机行业。回想起HTC最初的日子,王雪红说:“当时,我参加所有人的面试。我会告诉他们我的愿景。周永明是第一个相信这个愿景的人。”Wang continues to place faith in Chou’s ability to turn around the company they built together. Now I can focus on building new products and new product categories,says Chou, who has reportedly said he would step down if the company’s current family of smartphones didn’t succeed. “She is my biggest supporter.She’s also HTC’s largest shareholder, and she’s seen the value of her holdings plunge 90% since 2011. Wang may be modest, but if HTC’s slide continues, few would be surprised if she pulls a Steve Jobs-like return.王雪红仍然相信,周永明有能力带领他们共同打造的公司走出困境。周永明说:“现在,我的重点是打造新产品和新的产品类别。”据称,周永明已经表态,如果公司目前的智能手机无法成功,他就会主动下台。“她是我最大的持者。”王雪红同时也是HTC最大的股东。从2011年以来,她所持有的股份的价值已经缩0%。虽然王雪红一直非常谦逊,但如果HTC继续下滑,就算她像乔布斯一样选择重新出山,也不会有多少人感到意外 /201407/310989新津县中医院哪个医生好

巴中前列腺炎多少钱If failure deserves never to be rewarded, the Central Intelligence Agency’s paymasters clearly did not the memo. It makes little difference what event the CIA has missed, its budget and scope only appear to grow.如果说失败就绝不能得到奖赏,那么美国中央情报局(CIA)的老板显然不明白这一点。不论CIA搞砸了什么事情,它的预算和活动范围依然在扩大。“The CIA gets what it wants,President Barack Obama told Leon Panetta, the agency’s then director, who had just out a list of requests. Obama’s reaction was “uncharacteristically and bracingly decisive writes Panetta. Unfortunately, he cannot specify what goodies Obama so ily agreed to. Just as the CIA gets the drone strikes it wants, so it can delete passages from memoirs of former employees even ones as august as Panetta.时任CIA局长的利昂#8226;帕内Leon Panetta)刚向美国总统巴拉#8226;奥巴Barack Obama)念完一份物品清单,奥巴马就立刻表态:“CIA想要什么就有什么。”帕内塔在书中写道,奥巴马的反应“一反常态,果断得令人振奋”。可惜的是,他却不能详细说明奥巴马一口答应的究竟是什么要求。就像CIA能如愿实施无人机空袭一样,它也能删除前员工回忆录中的某些段落——即使是像帕内塔这样德高望重的人物也不例外。Almost all the publicity around Panetta’s Worthy Fights has focused on the handful of paragraphs critical of Obama. “Too often, in my view, the president relies on the logic of a law professor rather than the passion of a leader,he wrote. That, indeed, is true. But it is hardly news. Panetta’s follow-up interviews have been far stronger. Obama has “lost his way says his former Pentagon and CIA chief. From Islamists in Syria to Putin’s encroachments on eastern Europe, the world’s challenges threaten to overwhelm him. There are few more loyal and discreet Washington operators than Panetta. The fact that even he like Brutus is wielding the knife says a lot about the emperor’s waning authority.媒体对帕内塔新书《值得战斗Worthy Fights)的关注几乎都聚焦于书中对奥巴马的若干处批评。“在我看来,总统往往依赖法学教授的逻辑行事,而非领导人的,”他这样写道。这一点的确所言非虚。但这不算新鲜。接下来的一些访谈内容更为劲爆。先后在奥巴马政府执掌过CIA和五角大楼的帕内塔表示,奥巴马已经“迷失了方向”。从叙利亚的伊斯兰分子到普京在东欧的入侵行径,世界各处的挑战几近把他压垮。在华盛顿政坛上,很少有人比帕内塔更忠诚、更谨言慎行,然而,即使是帕内塔,也像布鲁图(Brutus,刺杀恺撒的主谋——译者注)那样对皇帝挥刀相向,这很能说明奥巴马的权威正在不断下降。In all other respects, Panetta’s book is a traditional Washington memoir a ploddingly written account of an illustrious career that does it little justice. Panetta came to Washington in the 1960s and never left. On the way, he was a liberal Republican in the Nixon administration, a Democratic congressman from California, chief of staff and budget director to Bill Clinton, and one of Obama’s key people in the successful hunt for Osama bin Laden.从其他方面的内容来看,帕内塔的书算是一本中规中矩的白宫回忆录——其单调缓慢的叙述风格与作者本人辉煌的职业生涯不太相称。帕内塔0世纪60年代来到华盛顿,此后就一直在那里工作。他曾是尼克松政府里的一名自由主义共和党人,加州的民主党国会议员,比#8226;克林Bill Clinton)的白宫办公厅主任和预算局局长,也是奥巴马政府成功击毙奥萨马#8226;#8226;拉登(Osama bin Laden)行动中的关键人物之一。The last event yields the book’s most interesting passages. Making up for its patchy record, it was the CIA that identified bin Laden’s hide-out in Abbottabad. Panetta was in the situation room when the operation went ahead. Unlike Robert Gates, the then defence secretary (who published Duty , his own coruscating memoirs, earlier this year), and Joe Biden, the vice-president, Panetta was all in favour. He credits Obama with the foresight to suggest a back-up helicopter in case the operation went awry. The spare chopper saved the day.最后一个事件是全书最有趣的部分。CIA发现了本拉登在阿伯塔巴德(Abbottabad)的藏身之处,这弥补了CIA此前并不完美的纪录。正式展开行动时,帕内塔身处白宫战情室。不像当时的副总统#8226;拜登(Joe Biden)和时任国防部长的罗伯#8226;盖茨(Robert Gates)——盖茨今年早些时候也出版了引人入胜的回忆录《职责Duty)——帕内塔完全持那次抓捕行动。他还赞扬了奥巴马提议出动后备直升机以防行动出岔子的先见之明。那架直升机挽救了整个行动。Worthy Fights has some telling insights into key Washington figures of the past generation. Bill Clinton is described as “ravenously intelligent Lyndon Baines Johnson once telephoned the mother of Panetta’s boss to wish her a happy birthday a gesture that secured the vote LBJ was seeking. It is impossible to imagine Obama doing such a thing. Washington is a town of towering egos. David Petraeus, who was Panetta’s successor at the CIA, is described as having an office that was “a shrine#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;to him And so on. But we must turn to other books for insights into the big shifts in US national security policy of the last few years. Of the current batch, two stand out in very different ways.《值得战斗》对上一代白宫人物有一些精妙的洞见。在他笔下,比尔#8226;克林顿是“极为聪明”的一个人。林#8226;贝恩#8226;约翰Lyndon Baines Johnson)曾打电话给帕内塔上司的母亲,祝她生日快乐,这一举动让约翰逊赢得了他想要的选票。很难想象奥巴马会做这样的事情。华盛顿多的是心高气傲的人物。对帕内塔在CIA的继任者大#8226;彼得雷乌David Petraeus)来说,办公室就是“他的神殿”。除了《值得战斗》一书之外,我们也有必要通过其他书籍来了解美国国家安全政策在过去几年的重大转变。目前有两本书特别引人注目,它们的精之处也各不相同。The first, National Insecurity: American Leadership in an Age of Fear, could lay claim to being the definitive book on how 9/11 affected US foreign policy. As the author of Running the World (2006) the most authoritative history to date of the National Security Council David Rothkopf has interviewed all but one of the NSC advisers since the role was established. Rothkopf started his career working for Henry Kissinger. There is pretty much no decision maker, including Panetta (he appears to have divulged his juiciest thoughts to this book, rather than his own) who has not opened up to Rothkopf.第一本书是《国家不安全:恐惧时代的美国领导地位National Insecurity: American Leadership in an Age of Fear)。在9#8226;11事件对美国外交政策的影响方面,这本书堪称权威之作。作者大#8226;罗斯科普David Rothkopf)曾就美国国家安全委员NSC)的发展历史,出版过最权威的著作《运作世界Running the World, 2006),为此他采访了自国家安全顾问一职设立以来,除一人之外的历任顾问。罗斯科普夫职业生涯的起点是为亨#8226;基辛Henry Kissinger)工作。几乎没有哪位决策者,包括帕内塔(他似乎把自己最有料的思想透露给了这本书,而没有留给自己的回忆录)在内,未曾对罗斯科普夫吐露心迹。On the day the planes hit the Twin Towers, Rothkopf was having coffee in Georgetown with one former and one future occupant of the role Anthony Lake, who was Bill Clinton’s first national security adviser, and Susan Rice, who holds the job now. It was an attack that spoke “without translation or dilution to our animal selves Rothkopf writes. His aim is to capture what has happened since 9/11 “a moment when America felt more vulnerable and adrift than at any time in modern memory飞机撞上双子塔那天,罗斯科普夫正在乔治城大学(Georgetown)与安东尼#8226;雷克(Anthony Lake)和苏#8226;赖斯(Susan Rice)喝咖啡。前者曾担任比尔#8226;克林顿的首位国家安全顾问,而后者目前担任该职。罗斯科普夫写道,这次袭击事件“直截了当、毫不含糊地展现了人类的动物本性”,那是“现代史上美国人比任何时候都脆弱和迷失的时刻”,而他的目标就是记#8226;11之后发生的变化。Rothkopf sets out what is essentially a game of two halves, to borrow a soccer cliché. In the first, George W Bush’s administration strikes out thoughtlessly invading Iraq, telling the world it was either for the US or against it, trashing the Geneva Conventions and so on. “It took some time before we could stop, catch our breath and make a critical reappraisal of what we were doing,Condoleezza Rice tells Rothkopf with some understatement.用足球术语来说,罗斯科普夫的叙述分成了两个半场。在上半场,乔治#8226;W#8226;布什(George W Bush)政府轻率地出击——入侵伊拉克,向世界宣告要么持美国要么与美国作对,践踏《日内瓦公约Geneva Conventions),等等。“过了一段时间我们才停了下来,喘了口气,对我们此前所做的事情进行了批判性的回顾,康多莉扎#8226;赖斯(Condoleezza Rice)有些轻描淡写地对罗斯科普夫说。In his first term, Bush essentially lost control of his national security machinery. Both Donald Rumsfeld, the Pentagon chief, and Dick Cheney, the vice-president, ran rings around Rice and excluded Colin Powell, the secretary of state, from key decisions, such as disbanding the Iraqi army. In Bush’s second term, the NSC worked more as it should, principally because Rumsfeld and Cheney had been sidelined. By then it was headed by Stephen Hadley, an impressive operator, who kept the trains running on time.在第一个任期内,布什基本失去了对国家安全机器的控制。国防部部长唐纳#8226;拉姆斯菲尔德(Donald Rumsfeld)和副总统迪克#8226;切尼(Dick Cheney)比赖斯强势,并在关键决策上把国务卿科#8226;鲍威Colin Powell)排挤在外,比如解散伊拉克军队。在布什的第二个任期内,NSC的运作更像它应有的样子,主要原因是拉姆斯菲尔德和切尼已经被边缘化。当时执掌NSC的是斯蒂#8226;哈德Stephen Hadley),一位令人印象深刻的政客,他让NSC稳步有序地运作。Bush spent much of his second term atoning for the mistakes of the first. But it was too late to make up for such costly mistakes. Rothkopf is unflinching in tallying the price of Bush’s errors, even if he credits him for a belated course correction. “Our reaction [to 9/11] was so overheated, so ill considered, of such scale and so broad in its unintended consequences that it became more defining, constraining and damaging than the original event to which it was intended to respond,says Rothkopf.在第二个任期的大部分时间里,布什都在弥补他在第一个任期内犯下的错误。然而,要弥补这些代价高昂的错误已经太迟了。罗斯科普夫并不讳言这些错误造成的代价,即使他赞扬了布什迟到的路线修正。“我们(#8226;11)的反应太激愤、太欠考虑、行动规模太大、意外后果也太广,以至于它变得比我们本来要应对的事件更具决定性、约束性和破坏性。”In the second half of the game, Obama dons the captain’s shirt. Again, the team fails to play as it should, although for very different reasons. Under Bush, the US overreacted to 9/11 partly because the NSC failed to perform its role. The White House lacked the co-ordination and thinking the NSC was there to provide. Under Obama, the problem is reversed. His priority has been to undo the mistakes of the Bush years. Partly as a result, he runs the most centralised White House in living memory. The NSC has now grown to 370 staff, which is 10 times its size under Kissinger. It spends its time second-guessing other departments rather than thinking big thoughts. “It is not strategy to simply undo the mistakes of the recent past,writes Rothkopf.在游戏的下半场,奥巴马穿上了队长球衣。队伍再一次没能找回应有的状态,尽管原因截然不同。布什领导下的美国#8226;11事件反应过度,部分原因是NSC没能发挥应有的作用。白宫缺乏协作和思想,而NSC本应提供这些。而在奥巴马的领导下,问题却相反。奥巴马优先做的是修正布什任内犯下的错误。这导致的一个结果是,他治下的白宫成为了人们记忆中最集权的白宫。NSC的人员数量上升到370人,是基辛格时期0倍。NSC把时间都花在对其他部门进行事后批评,而不是着眼于大局。“仅仅纠正不久前的过错算不上战略,”罗斯科普夫写道。Bush’s administration was known for blundering into rash decisions. Obama’s will be remembered for agonising over tweets and press releases. Panetta’s memoirs have plenty of examples of junior White House officials rebuking him for talking in public without having first sought their permission. Hillary Clinton’s memoirs, Hard Choices , are far too polite to echo that complaint. As Rothkopf concludes: “They [Obama’s White House staff] supplanted the agencies they were supposed to lead, attempted to do their jobs for them, micromanaged decisions, and as a result did not have time to do the strategic planning and co-ordination work that only they could do.The result has been strategic drift under Obama following the blunders he inherited.布什政府以决策盲目轻率著称,奥巴马政府却给人们留下为推特(tweet)消息和新闻稿绞尽脑汁的印象。帕内塔的回忆录中多次提到,一些级别较低的白宫官员指责奥巴马未事先征询他们意见就发表公开讲话。希拉里#8226;克林Hillary Clinton)的回忆录《艰难的抉择Hard Choices)过于礼貌,并没有呼应帕内塔的抱怨。罗斯科普夫总结道:“他们(奥巴马的白宫班子)取代了他们本应领导的机构,试图代替后者履行职责,做一些微观管理层面的决策,结果是他们没有时间去做只有他们能做的战略规划和协调工作。”其结果是奥巴马政府在接过前任的烂摊子后,迷失了战略方向。In Rothkopf’s world, it is the big personalities that matter. A good president delegates authority to capable people. George HW Bush, whose national security adviser was Brent Scowcroft, is considered the model of how things should work. In their very different ways, Bush Jr and Obama show the opposite.在罗斯科普夫的叙述中,大人物最为重要。一个好总统会把权力授予能人。老布什(George HW. Bush)被视作这方面的标杆,他的国家安全顾问是布伦特#8226;斯考克罗夫Brent Scowcroft)。而小布什和奥巴马分别以不同的方式展示了反面教材。To Michael J Glennon, in National Security and Double Government, the shifting personalities are mere detail. No matter who is elected to run White House and Congress, they are puppets of a permanent apparatus. In less capable hands, Glennon’s thesis might come across as sophomoric. Yet as a scholar who worked on Capitol Hill for years, Glennon is that rare thing: an academic with real world experience. Instead of a rupture between George W Bush and Obama, Glennon sees remarkable continuity. Towards the end of his presidency, Bush was asked what most surprised him about the job. “How little authority I have,he said. That is also what people say about Obama.在迈克尔#8226;J#8226;格伦Michael J Glennon)所著的《国家安全和双重政府National Security and Double Government)中,不断更替的个人并不重要。不管人民选举谁来掌管白宫和国会,他们只是永恒的政府体制下的傀儡而已。格伦农的论题如果是由一个能力不够的人来书写,会给人一种肤浅的感觉。但作为一个在国会山工作多年的学者,格伦农拥有学者身上罕有的实践经验。格伦农并没有将小布什和奥巴马割裂开来,相反,他看到了二者之间不同寻常的连续性。在小布什任期将尽的时候,有人问这份工作的哪个地方让他最惊讶。布什回答:“我拥有的权力竟然如此之少。”这也是人们谈及奥巴马时会说的话。Glennon draws an analogy from Walter Bagehot’s portrait of the English system, which was divided between its “dignified institutionsthe monarchy, the Lords, the aristocracy and the pomp and its “efficient institutionsthe Commons, the City, the bourgeois and the real power. No daylight should be allowed upon the former lest its magic be destroyed.格伦农借用了沃尔特#8226;白芝Walter Bagehot)关于英国政制的论述。白芝浩认为,英国政制可以分成“尊严的部分”和“效率的部分”,前者包括皇室、上议院、贵族和奢华的表相,后者则包括下议院、伦敦金融城、资产阶级和实权。为了保前者的魔力不至于消失,前者应该始终隔绝于人们的视线之外。In today’s Washington, the dignified constitution comprises the three Madisonian branches of government the presidency, Congress and the Supreme Court. The efficient parts are labelled “Trumaniteafter President Harry S Truman, who set up the NSC, the National Security Agency and the other key planks of Dwight Eisenhower’s “military-industrial complex It might better be called the Data-Intelligence complex. For Glennon’s thesis to work, America’s double government must meet two criteria, he says. First, the Madisonian institutions must appear to have control over the national security agencies. Second, they must not actually have that control.在当今的华盛顿,尊严体制包含3个麦迪逊主义的政府分——总统、国会和最高法院。而效率体制则被贴上“杜鲁门主义”的标签,哈#8226;S#8226;杜鲁门总统(Harry S Truman)设立了NSC、国家安全局(US National Security Agency),以及德怀#8226;艾森豪威Dwight Eisenhower)所称的“军工业复合体”的其他关键组成部分。这个复合体更恰当的名称应该是“数情报复合体”。格伦农称,自己的理论如果要站得住脚的话,美国的双重政府就必须满足两个标准。首先,麦迪逊主义的体制必须看上去控制了国家安全机构。第二,它们事实上必须没有控制这些机构。Glennon identifies 46 federal departments and agencies that generate classified information and 2,000 private companies working for them at 10,000 locations across the US. In theory, the president tells them what to do, Congress gives them the authority and the courts evaluate the legality of their actions. In practice, the agencies write the orders the president issues, draft the laws Congress passes, and appoint the judges to the secret courts that oversee them.格伦农谈到了负责情报工作6个联邦部门和机构,以及分布在全美10000个地方为这些机构效力000家私营企业。理论上,总统向这些机构下达指令,国会授予它们权力,法院评估它们的行动是否合法。实际上,是这些机构起草总统要发布的指令,草拟国会要通过的法律,并指定监督这些机构的秘密法庭的法官。After Edward Snowden’s revelations in 2013 about the NSA’s rampant surveillance activities, officials insisted that there was a “robust legal regimeoverseeing it. The numbers tell a different story. Between 1979, when the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court was established, and 2013, it received 35,333 surveillance requests from the NSA. All but 12 were given the green light. The judges are appointed at the sole discretion of the Supreme Court’s chief justice. The court’s decisions are secret. No appeals are allowed. Obama ordered an “independentreview of it after the Snowden leaks. Very little has changed.013年爱德华#8226;斯诺Edward Snowden)曝光美国国家安全局大肆进行监视活动后,官员们坚称有一个“健全的法律体制”在监督国安局的活动。然而数据却说明情况并非如此。外国情报监视法Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court)979年设立到2013年期间,总共从国安局那里收到5333次监视请求。其中只2次请求未能获准。该法院的法官任命由最高法院的大法官全权决定。法院的裁决是秘密的。不允许进行上诉。在斯诺登事件后,奥巴马曾下令对该法院进行“独立”审查。但几乎什么都没有改变。Great play is also made of Capitol Hill’s oversight. In practice the intelligence agencies brief only eight lawmakers and usually only after the fact. They are not allowed to bring aides or take notes. “We are like mushrooms,said Norman Mineta, a former US lawmaker. “They keep us in the dark and feed us a lot of manure.”国会山的监督也大有文章。事实上,各情报机构只向8位立法者介绍情况,而且通常是在事后。这些立法者不允许带助手或者做笔记。“我们就像蘑菇一样,”前立法者诺#8226;米内Norman Mineta)说,“他们让我们呆在暗处,给我们灌输大量肥料。”Few people will Glennon’s work. It is too academic for popular taste. More will Rothkopf’s. Still more should do so. As an account of post 9/11 policy making, it is unlikely to be surpassed. By far the largest market will be for Panetta’s memoir because of the publicity around it. However, those who buy the latter should remember that most of the interesting stuff has been left out. Like the man said, the CIA gets what it wants.阅读格伦农作品的人不会太多。他的书学术味太浓,不符合大众口味。更多人会阅读罗斯科普夫的著作,这本书也的确值得更多人阅读。作为一本讲#8226;11后政策制定的书,罗斯科普夫的著作不太可能被超越。但最畅销的将会是帕内塔的回忆录,因为这本书的宣传力度很大。然而,那些购买了帕内塔的书的读者应该记住,书中遗漏了大部分有趣的内容。正如总统所说的,CIA想要什么就有什么。来 /201412/346768四川省妇幼保健在线QQ Europe thinks it has a Ukraine problem. In truth, it has a Russia, or more precisely, a Vladimir Putin problem. Moscow’s war against Kiev is a fragment of a bigger picture. The Russian president’s revanchism reaches well beyond Ukraine. The bigger goal is to tear up the continent’s post-communist settlement.欧洲认为,它的麻烦是乌克兰,实际上,这个麻烦是俄罗斯,或者更准确地说,是俄罗斯总统弗拉基米#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)。莫斯科对基辅的战争是冰山一角。普京的复仇主义目标远不止乌克兰。他的更大目标是撕毁欧洲大陆共产主义时代结束后的安排。European hesitation about confronting Russia is ily explained. Economic self-interest, history, cultural affinity, and latent anti-Americanism have persuaded many Europeans to look at Mr Putin as the leader they hoped for rather than the one who saw the fall of the Soviet Union as the geopolitical catastrophe of the 20th century.欧洲不愿与俄罗斯正面对抗的原因很好解释。经济上的利己主义、历史、文化上的亲缘性以及潜在的反美主义都让许多欧洲人认为,普京是他们所希望的领导人,而不是那个将苏联解体视为20世纪地缘政治灾难的领导人。There is a seductive narrative for a west chastened by bungled interventions in the Middle East. If Mr Putin’s demands are sometimes provocative and, as in Georgia as well as Ukraine, can turn into outright aggression the west should be mindful of the circumstances. Perhaps Nato had indeed broken promises about admitting former Soviet satellites? Maybe it had bent the rules when it bombed Serbia? As for the Iraq war, well, enough said.一个有诱惑性的说法是,西方由于搞砸了对中东地区的干预已经学乖了。如果说普京的要求有时是挑衅性的——而且正如格鲁吉亚和乌克兰的情形那样,可能演变为彻底的侵略——西方应该时刻牢记当前形势。或许北Nato)真的放弃了接纳前苏联卫星国的承诺?或许当北约轰炸塞尔维亚的时候,它就已经有所松动了?至于伊拉克战争,嗯,就不用多说了。The annexation of Crimea and the march into Ukraine’s Donbass region should have dispelled the doubts. In the case of Angela Merkel this is what seems to have happened. Not a politician to prefer confrontation over negotiation, the German chancellor has been offered too many lies and broken promises.俄罗斯吞并克里米亚以及进入乌克兰顿巴斯地区后,人们应该不再怀疑了。就德国总理安格#8226;默克Angela Merkel)而言,这些怀疑似乎已成现实。默克尔不是一位喜欢对抗胜过谈判的政客,她遭遇了太多的谎言和失信。The argument within Europe, though, has not ended. Much has been made of the sympathy towards Moscowshown by the Syriza government in Greece. It is not alone. Italy’s prime minister Matteo Renzi has been outdoing Silvio Berlusconi in his fealty to Mr Putin. Hungary’s Viktor Orbán publicly disdains liberal democracy. Cyprus always speaks up for Russia, while French consent to the sanctions regime is halfhearted. So no one should be surprised by the latest Russian offensive: there is no more powerful a provocation to the Kremlin than appeasement.然而,欧洲内部的争论没有结束。众所周知,希腊激进左翼联盟党(Syriza)领导的政府对莫斯科深表同情。这并非个例。在对普京忠诚方面,意大利总理马泰#8226;伦齐(Matteo Renzi)一直胜过西尔维#8226;贝卢斯科Silvio Berlusconi)。匈牙利总理欧尔#8226;维克Viktor Orbán)公开鄙视自由民主。塞浦路斯总是维护俄罗斯,而法国对制裁俄罗斯只是半心半意地赞同。因此,应该没有人对俄罗斯最新的进攻感到意外:对克里姆林宫来说,没有比绥靖政策更大的挑衅了。Mr Putin’s litany of grievances Nato’s “encirclementof Russia, a plan to humiliate Moscow, broken international rules have been heard over and over. Occasionally there is a small truth hidden in the big lie, but the essential storyline never deviates. The west wants to destroy the power and dignity of Russia. So familiar are the charges that the implications are often discounted. Everyone has heard Mr Putin pledge to roll back the frontiers, but few have really been listening.人们不断地听到普京的一连串抱怨:北约“包围”俄罗斯、计划羞辱莫斯科、违反国际规则。弥天大谎中偶尔也会隐藏着些许真相,但基本的故事情节永远差不了多少。西方希望破坏俄罗斯的实力和尊严。这些指控已是家常便饭,其影响往往大打折扣。所有人都听到普京承诺收缩疆界,但很少有人真的把他的话当回事。The annexation of Crimea and the push into eastern Ukraine were in one dimension opportunistic. Mr Putin had mis the Maidan protests and failed to anticipate the fall of former president Viktor Yanukovich. So he grabbed what he could. Expedient as the war may have been, it fitted the game plan to restore suzerainty over much of the former Soviet empire.从某个方面来说,俄罗斯吞并克里米亚和进入乌克兰东部有些机会主义。普京误读了独立广场的抗议活动,未能预见到乌克兰前总统维克#8226;亚努科维Viktor Yanukovich)的垮台。因此他抓住了他能抓住的机会。虽然战争可能是权宜之计,但它符合俄罗斯对前苏联帝国的许多加盟共和国恢复宗主国地位的通盘计划。General Yury Baluyevsky, the former chief of staff of the Russian armed forces, says the confrontation with the west is a continuation of the cold war. The methods, though, are now more sophisticated. Military force, he says, is “the final stage of the process Moscow has mastered the art of hybrid warfare, including “information and psychological pressure To paraphrase the general, Mr Putin will divide and weaken his enemies before deploying force.俄军前总参谋长尤里#8226;巴卢耶夫斯基将军(General Yuri Baluyevsky)表示,与西方对峙是冷战的延续。然而,现在的对峙方式更加复杂。巴卢耶夫斯基将军说,军事力量是“这一过程的最后阶段”。莫斯科掌握了混合战争的艺术,包括运用“信息和心理压力”。用巴卢耶夫斯基将军的话来说,普京将会在动用武力之前分化削弱其敌人。In its softest form, this means presenting rolling propaganda as rolling news with the rapid expansion of the Kremlin-controlled Russia Today news network. Then there is the funding of populist parties of left and right in western European capitals. Marine Le Pen’s National Front in France has taken a Russian loan. Nigel Farage, the leader of the anti-immigrant UK Independence party, counts himself an admirer of the Russian leader.其最温和的斗争方式,就是借助俄罗斯政府控制的“今日俄罗斯Russia Today)新闻网络的快速扩张,不断地以滚动新闻的形式滚动宣传。然后是向西欧国家的左右翼民粹主义政党提供资金。法国马#8226;勒庞(Marine Le Pen)领导的国民阵National Front)已经接受了俄罗斯的贷款。反对移民的英国独立UK Independence party)的领导人奈杰#8226;法拉Nigel Farage)自称是普京的仰慕者。Further along the spectrum there are the bribes paid to politicians and business leaders and the stakes taken in vulnerable financial institutions in south eastern Europe and the Balkans. There is a none-too-subtle campaign to destabilise pro-western governments in the former Soviet space Bulgaria is a recent victim by exploiting their dependence on Russian energy. Add in the testing of Nato defences by Russian fighter planes, cyber attacks and kidnappings in the Baltics, and the incursions of nuclear bombers, and you can see what the general was talking about.再接下来是贿赂政客和商界领导人,以及收购东南欧国家和巴尔干地区的脆弱金融机构的权益。俄罗斯利用前苏联势力范围内亲西方国家对其能源的依赖,毫不掩饰地发动破坏这些国家政府稳定的攻势——保加利亚就是最近的一个受害者。再加上俄罗斯战机、网络袭击和巴尔干地区绑架事件对北约防务的考验,以及携带核弹头的轰炸机的入侵,你就可以明白巴卢耶夫斯基将军在说什么。Ms Merkel has recognised the danger, publicly warning about subversion in Moldova and attempts to pull Serbia back into the Russian orbit. The US has been working with the European Commission to ease some of the vulnerabilities of energy-dependent governments in southeastern Europe. But in western Europe there is widesp reluctance still to recognise the big picture to set the Ukraine crisis in the context of Mr Putin’s broader aims.默克尔意识到了这种威胁,对尔多瓦境内的颠覆活动和俄罗斯将塞尔维亚拉回自身轨道的企图进行了公开警告。美国一直在与欧盟委员会(European Commission)合作,以减轻有能源依赖性的东南欧国家的部分脆弱性。但在西欧,人们仍普遍不愿承认这种大局,不愿从普京更大范围企图的角度看待乌克兰危机。Mr Putin is not the creation of western perfidy. Throughout his career, from the office of the mayor of St Petersburg to the top job in the Kremlin, he has been remarkably constant in his ambitions and in the ruthlessness he will deploy to achieve them.普京并非是西方背信弃义的产物。在从担任圣彼得堡市副市长、到入主克里姆林宫的整个政治生涯中,普京的抱负及实现抱负过程中的冷酷无情没有变过。A collapsing oil price and the impact of sanctions have made him more dangerous: without oil and gas revenues, his domestic support now rests on his capacity to mobilise nationalist anger against the alleged attempt by Nato and the EU to subjugate “mother Russia The west’s options are limited, but the beginning of wisdom is to understand that this is not just about Ukraine.油价暴跌和制裁的影响让普京变得更加危险:没有了石油和天然气收入,现在普京在国内能否获得持,取决于他能否挑起民族主义者的怒火,对抗所谓的北约和欧盟要征“俄罗斯母亲”的企图。西方的选择是有限的,但要想明智行事,最起码要明白这不仅仅与乌克兰有关。来 /201502/359387四川省成都妇幼保健医院怎样预约

四川妇女医院支持刷信用卡吗Cynthia Breazeal has never considered herself a woman entrepreneur. An entrepreneur? Yes. A leader? Certainly. But gender really has never come into play as she expanded her company Jibo, the maker of the world’s first family robot.辛西娅o布雷西亚从来不认为自己是女创业家。创业家?是的。领导者?当然。但她在带领公司Jibo蓬勃发展的时候,从来没有受到性别问题的影响。Jibo是世界第一款家用机器人的制造商。Still, today is Women’s Entrepreneur Day, a global movement to celebrate and support female founders and shed light on some of their challenges. So Fortune interviewed Breazeal, as well as Susan Coelius Keplinger, the co-founder of online ad platform Triggit, about their experiences building their respective companies from scratch. Both women are part of Fortune’s 2014 class of Most Promising Entrepreneurs.今天是女性创业日,作为一项全球性活动,“女性创业日”的目的是鼓励和持女性创业者,了解她们遇到的挑战。因此,《财富》杂志(Fortune)采访了布雷西亚和在线广告平台Triggit的联合创始人克利乌斯o凯普林格,了解她们白手起家进行创业的经历。两人均被评为《财富014年“最有前途的创业家”(Most Promising Entrepreneurs)。“The world would certainly be a better place if we had more women entrepreneurs,said Breazeal. “Women are going to bring a different angle to startups. The stereotype is that it is all young geeky guys and that is not true. It is critical for women to become entrepreneurs because of their unique perspective.”布雷西亚说道:“如果有更多女性投身创业,我们的世界将变得更好。女性将从不同的角度来诠释创业。人们总是认为,进行创业的都是年轻的书呆子们,这是错误的。女性参与创业的关键就在于她们的独特视角。”Edited excerpts:以下是经过编辑的采访内容摘录:Fortune: Give me a little background on your company.《财富》:简单介绍一下你的公司吧。Susan Coelius Keplinger: We started the company in 2005, and we started doing similar things with ads that we are doing now. It didn’t make sense to us why an advertisement on Yahoo’s homepage would sell for hundreds of dollars, but an ad on a blog shown to the same person would be some for 40 cents. If it is really about the person and the audience, it shouldn’t matter what page that person it on. We are trying to build products and get access to an audience regardless of the site itself.苏珊o克利乌斯o凯普林格:我们在2005年成立了这家公司,最初的业务与现在类似,都与广告有关。当时我们不明白为什么雅虎(Yahoo)主页上的一则广告可以卖到数百美元,而出现在客上的广告却只0美分,即便可能是同样的人在看这些广告。如果说广告的关键是受众,那与受众浏览的页面又有什么关系?我们正努力开发一些产品,向受众展示广告,而不必考虑网站本身的差异。Cynthia Breazeal: Jibo is building the world’s first family robot. It’s like R2D2 and an iPad had a baby. It’s the world’s first social robot. I founded the company in 2012 and now is the time to bring it to the world.辛西娅o布雷西亚:Jibo正在生产全球第一款家用机器人。这款机器人是R2D2和iPad的结合体。这是全世界第一款社交机器人。我012年成立了这家公司,现在正在努力将它推向全世界。How would you describe the stage that your company is at right now?你如何描述公司目前所处的阶段?SK: It’s the rise of native advertising [advertorials, essentially], but less so from a deceptive standpoint. We have fallen into this really cool space. It used to be that people thought online advertising would never work because it wasn’t good for the user experience. Now we are evolving toward an experience where advertising doesn’t stand in opposition with the content. If the ads are good, you’ll engage with them.SK:目前公司处在原生广告[实质上是社论式广告]增长的阶段,但并非从欺骗性的角度。我们现在已经进入了这一很酷的阶段。以前人们认为在线广告不会成功,因为在线广告的用户体验较差。而现在我们正在开发一种全新的体验,使广告不会与内容冲突。只要是好广告,就一定能吸引受众。CB: Now we are going from the prototype to the actual manufacturer. Making that switch is the main focus right now, as well as finishing the software and getting the hardware manufactured. We are also looking to develop our developer community. We are busy. It is a lot of engineering, but we are cranking through it all.CB:现在我们正在从原型设计转向实际生产。这是我们目前的重中之重,其他工作还包括完成软件开发,进行硬件生产等。此外,我们计划培养自己的开发者社区。我们非常忙碌。有大量的工程设计工作要做,我们将全力以赴。What were some of your initial challenges raising your first round of funding?进行第一轮融资时遇到了哪些挑战?SK: As much as it wasn’t fun raising money in the middle of the recession, it is what enabled us to succeed. At the time there were not as many companies getting started. We raised million in angel funds that helped us create and find a business. We used that as largely innovation money, so when we went to VCs for our first funding round we were y to create a product and enter the market. It’s important to find people that want to invest in you and are willing to change our strategy a bunch and help you find a product that works. I think a lot of people write off that support. If you can find seed investors, angel investors who really believe you, there is not a better situation.SK:虽然在经济衰退的形势下进行融资并不轻松,但这却是我们成功的关键。当时创业公司没有现在那么多。我们从天使基金那里获得00万美元,这笔资金帮助我们创建了一家公司。我们将那笔投资大部分用作创新资金,所以,在首轮风投融资时,我们已经开发出一款产品,并准备将其推向市场。重要的是找到想要给你投资,并且愿意改变我们的策略并协助找到一款有效产品的人。找到愿意相信你的种子投资者,没有比这更美好的事情了。CB: The first round was a seed round. I was actually approached by a partner within a VC firm, and the partner felt that there was an opportunity around a new product category of robots in the home. We started talking because of my expertise in robotics, and I was at a point in my carer where I was interested in commercializing the work that I had done academically [Breazeal is an associate professor of media arts and sciences at MIT]. Things move really fast pace in the entrepreneur world and time is money. You are having to make the best decisions you can with incomplete information.CB:第一轮是种子投资。当时有一家风险投资公司的合伙人找到我,他认为一款新型家用机器人产品中蕴含着商机。因为我拥有机器人科学的专业知识,并且我当时也很有兴趣将学术上的成果商业化[布雷西亚是麻省理工学院(MIT)媒体艺术与科学副教授],因此我们开始交谈。在创业领域,形势瞬息万变,时间就是金钱。你必须在信息不全面的情况下,做出最好的决定。What are some of the biggest myths about being a ‘woman entrepreneur作为“女性创业家”,你遇到的最大的误解是什么?SK: There are plenty of stories, and I have been in plenty of situations when I was younger, where male investors wanted to sleep with me and they didn’t want to do business with me. Yes, there are some bad eggs out there that are men, but there are some women who are equally as snotty. Sexism exists, especially if you are young and good looking, but those are not the type of people you want to be around anyway. I don’t know how to make an asexual society. We are in a time right now when a huge set of swell is coming. There are a bunch of waves that are terrible that you don’t want to ride, but there are also a bunch of awesome waves that seem crazy but you be great if you got on top of them. If you go to raise money and you find a guy that is an ass, move on. You have to remember that even if you have a good idea, people could still say no 100 times.SK:我遭遇过的误解有很多。在我年轻的时候,经常遇到有些男性投资者只想跟我上床,而不是跟我做生意。没错,有些男人非常无耻,但也有一些女性令人厌恶。对女性的性别歧视确实存在,尤其是对年轻貌美的女性,但你肯定不想围着这类人转悠。我不知道如何实现一个无性别歧视的社会。如今,我们就像站在一波汹涌袭来的巨浪前面一样。有些海浪令人望而生畏,你不想卷入其中,而有一些海浪看起来很可怕,但如果你能乘风破浪站在浪尖,那将是很棒的感觉。如果你在融资的时候遇到一个卑鄙小人,这时你应该放下这件事,继续前进。你必须要记住,即便你有很好的想法,还是会不断遭到拒绝。CB: I think I am lucky because I am trying to do something that has never been done before, so the focus is on that and not me and my gender. My credibility is not in question here. So the focus is on where it needs to be which is what we are trying to do. I have always been on the forefront of innovation, so the attention has always been on the robots I built rather than on me. I think being an entrepreneur is hard no matter what gender you are.CB:我很幸运,因为我在做的事情之前从未有人做过,因此人们更加关注这一点,而不是我本人或我的性别。我的信誉毋庸置疑。于是人们将注意力放到了应该关注的地方——我们在做的事情。我一直都在创新的最前沿,所以我开发的机器人比我本身更引人关注。我认为,创业是一个艰难的过程,这与性别无关。What advice do you have for female entrepreneurs just starting out?你对刚刚起步的女性创业者有什么建议?SK: Learning how to be comfortable with risk and failure is really important. If you are not comfortable with failure, it can really be so scary. If you know that those small failures are Okay, then suddenly it does not become so scary. You want to be calculated about the risks that you take.SK:学会坦然面对风险和失败非常重要。如果你不能坦然面对失败,你只会对它心怀恐惧。如果你知道这些小失败没什么大不了,突然之间你会发现失败变得不再可怕。你需要提前认真考虑自己要承担的风险。CB: The thing that fascinated me about women, is that women just make it work. We juggle a crazy amount of things and we make it work. So much of launching your own startup is dealing with all the things that come at your from all these angles and you have to make it work. Women aly do that every day. I don’t think women should be intimated by it, I think they should think they are at an advantage.CB:身为女性,让我自豪的是,我们总是能让事情正常运行起来。我们要尽力应付各种各样的事情,而且最终总能将其解决。而创业很大程度上就是处理从不同方面交到你手里的事务,并且你必须将这些事情妥善解决。其实,女性每天都在这样做。我认为女性不应对此感到害怕,而是应该将其作为自己的优势 /201411/344399 四川成都市治疗龟头炎哪家医院最好南充b超多少钱

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