原标题: 厦门膨体隆鼻吧好生活
The year’s best books, selected by the editors of The New York Times Book Review.年度最佳书籍,由《纽约时报》书评版编辑评选。FICTION虚构类ALL THE LIGHT WE CANNOT SEE《我们看不到的所有光明》(All the Light We Cannot See)By Anthony Doerr安东尼·多伊尔(Anthony Doerr)著Scribner, .斯克里布纳出版社(Scribner),27美元。With brisk chapters and sumptuous language, Doerr’s second novel follows two characters whose paths will intersect in the waning days of World War II: an orphaned engineering prodigy recruited into the Nazi ranks, and a blind French girl who joins the Resistance. Tackling questions of survival, endurance and moral obligations during wartime, the book is as precise and artful and ingenious as the puzzle boxes the heroine’s locksmith father builds for her. Impressively, it is also a vastly entertaining feat of storytelling.这是多伊尔的第二部小说,以轻快的章节和丰富的语言讲述两个人物的人生道路如何在“二战”之后交汇:一个是被招募为纳粹士兵的工程天才孤儿,另一个是加入抵抗组织的失明法国女孩。本书探讨战争期间的生存、忍耐与道德困境,如同女主人公做锁匠的父亲为她打造的谜箱一样精确而巧妙。它令人难忘,在叙事上也展现出引人入胜的技巧。 /201412/348761

The zodiac animal of China#39;s coming Lunar New Year has caused much confusion in the English world, as its translation results in at least two candidates: sheep or goat.  中国农历新年即将到来,但今年的生肖却让英语国家的人们感到非常困惑,因为它至少有两种英文翻译:绵羊或山羊。  Chinese folklorists say the animal symbol can be either a sheep or a goat but more likely goat, given the latter#39;s popularity as a farm animal among Han Chinese。  中国民俗学家表示,羊年生肖的象征物既可能是绵羊,也可能是山羊,但山羊的可能性更大,因为在汉族地区山羊作为家畜更为常见。  The Chinese lunar calendar assigns an animal symbol to each year in every 12-year cycle. Yet the Chinese character for the eighth zodiac animal is ;Yang;, which can refer to either of the two ruminants when used without attributes。  中国农历以十二年为周期,每年以一种动物作为象征。十二生肖中的第八个生肖是“羊”,而这个字在没有修饰限定语的情况下可指绵羊或山羊任意一种反刍动物。  Huang Yang, a prominent researcher on the role of sheep/goats in Chinese culture, says tracing the origin of the zodiacal Yang could be difficult, as the Chinese zodiac first appeared after the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 ), when the Chinese people did not differentiate between sheep and goats in language or in sacrificial offering。  国内研究羊在中国文化中地位的知名学者黄洋称,追寻生肖羊的来历比较困难,因为此生肖最先出现在商朝(公元前1600-1046年)之后,而那时人们在语言和祭祀中是不区分绵羊和山羊的。  Both species have a long history of domestication in China and have appeared on oracle bone scripts and other artifacts since prehistoric times, according to Huang, who in 2012 challenged the saying that Chinese are ;descendants of the dragon; by arguing that the earliest Chinese actually worshipped the meek ruminants。  黄洋称,这两种动物在中国都有着较长的畜养历史,自史前时期开始,就已出现在甲骨文和其他手工艺品上了。黄洋曾在2012年质疑中国人是龙的传人,认为最早的中国人崇拜的是温顺的反刍动物——羊。  ;But if we judge from the fact that the Chinese zodiac is a Han tradition, Yang are more likely goats, which are more common livestock for the Han Chinese,; he tells Xinhua in a phone interview。  在接受新华社的电话采访时,他表示:“但如果我们基于生肖是汉族传统这个事实出发, 则‘羊’更可能指的是山羊,因为对于汉族人来说山羊是更为常见的家畜。”  Shaggy sheep are a common sight in north China#39;s prairies and were domesticated by Chinese earlier than goats, but goats are more commonly raised in areas populated by Han Chinese, Huang says。  他说,绒毛蓬松的绵羊在中国北方的大草原上很常见,其畜养的时间也比山羊要早,但在汉族聚居地山羊更为常见。  Images on China#39;s zodiac stamps and papercuttings are often bearded goats. The replica of the Yang bronze statue that once formed part of a zodiac fountain in the looted Old Summer Palace also has a goat head。  中国生肖邮票和剪纸上羊的形象往往都是带胡须的山羊。而惨遭洗劫的圆明园生肖喷泉一部分的青铜羊首复制品,也是山羊头。  Fang Binggui, a folklorist based in southeast China#39;s Fuzhou City, says the image of the zodiac Yang is open to regional interpretation. ;People depict the zodiac animal based on the most common Yang in their region. So it#39;s often sheep in the north while goats in the south.;  中国东南部城市福州的民俗学家方兵贵称,生肖羊的形象常有区域性的解释。他说:“人们基于当地最常见的羊来描绘生肖羊,所以在北方生肖羊往往是绵羊,在南方却是山羊。”  Few ordinary Chinese are troubled by the sheep/goat distinction。  很少有中国百姓因分不清绵羊和山羊感到困扰。  ;I#39;ve never thought about that question before. Do we have to tell them apart?; asks Chen Xufeng, an office clerk in Beijing。  北京白领陈旭锋说:“我以前从来没想过这个问题。我们有必要区分它们吗?”  ;I#39;ve seen more goats in zodiac images, but I prefer to buy a sheep mascot, as sheep are more fluffy and lovely,; he says。  他说:“在生肖图案里,山羊更常见,但我却更喜欢买绵羊吉祥物,因为绵羊毛茸茸的,非常可爱。”  However, the ambiguity has whipped up discussion in the West. A story run by the Associated Press said this year#39;s animal ;is subject to interpretation;。  然而,这个模糊不清的概念却在西方引发讨论。美联社刊文称,今年的生肖动物还有待解读。  ;We just had this discussion a few weeks ago. What exactly is it?; AP ed a worker in Brooklyn Chinatown as saying. ;It can be a ram, sheep or goat -- any ruminant mountain animal with horns.;  美联社援引布鲁克林唐人街一名上班族的话称:“我们几周前刚讨论过这个问题。今年的生肖到底是什么?它可以是公羊、绵羊或者山羊,只要是山上长角的反刍动物都有可能。”  In England, the Manchester Evening News also posed the question: ;Later this month, we will enter the Chinese Year of the Ram. Or should that be sheep? Or even Goat?;  英格兰《曼彻斯特晚报》也提出了这个问题:“月底我们就要跨入中国农历公羊年了,或者应该叫绵羊年?还是山羊年?”  Other media outlets, including Bloomberg, have described the coming Lunar New Year as the Year of the Sheep, Goat or Ram。  其他一些媒体包括彭社,也已把即将到来的农历新年称作绵羊、山羊或公羊年。  Xiang Daohua, a teacher of Chinese language and culture at China Foreign Affairs University, believes cultural connotations should be taken into consideration in translation。  北京外国语大学[微]中国语言文化学院教师向道华认为,翻译时应该考虑文化内涵的因素。  ;The English word #39;sheep#39; better fits the Yang image in traditional Chinese cultures, which is meek and even a bit weak,; he says。  他说:“英文单词‘sheep’(绵羊)更符合中国传统文化中羊温顺、甚至有点柔弱的形象。” /201502/359593For years pregnant women have been warned about eating tuna because of concerns about mercury exposure. But a federal panel has reignited the debate about the benefits and risks of eating tuna and other seafood during pregnancy.多年来,因为汞污染问题,妇一直被警告不宜食用金鱼。然而,联邦政府的一个顾问小组最近却就妊娠期食用金鱼等海产品的风险和收益,重新挑起了争论。Experts agree that seafood is a rich source of important nutrients, and that most of us don’t eat enough of it. Fish is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, iodine, selenium and vitamin D. And numerous studies show that the nutrients in fish are particularly important for brain development in fetuses and nursing infants.专家们一致认为海产品是重要营养物质的丰富来源,且我们大多数人的海产品摄入量都不足。鱼肉中富含ω-3脂肪酸、B族维生素、碘、硒和维生素D。众多研究表明,鱼肉中的营养物质对于胎儿和哺乳期婴儿的大脑发育尤为重要。As part of a sweeping review of nutrition recommendations, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee recently reiterated the current seafood guidelines: Americans should eat a wide variety of seafood. The report also acknowledges the risk of mercury exposure from certain kinds of seafoods, and notes that women who are pregnant, nursing or may become pregnant should avoid certain kinds — tilefish, shark, swordfish and king mackerel — because of their high mercury content.此次对营养建议的全面复审由美国膳食指南咨询委员会(Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee)负责。作为这项工作的一部分,该小组最近重申了当前的指南:美国人应食用多种多样的海产品。其报告承认某些种类的海产品存在汞暴露风险,并指出妇、哺乳期或备女性应避免食用某些汞含量偏高的鱼类:方头鱼、鲨鱼、箭鱼和王鲭。The panel withheld a recommendation about tuna, second only to shrimp in popularity in the ed States. Current guidelines from the Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency warn pregnant and nursing women to limit tuna consumption to six ounces per week.但是,该小组并不赞同关于金鱼,也就是美国仅次于虾的第二受欢迎的海产品的建议。美国食品和药品监督(Food and Drug Administration)和美国国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency)的现行指南警告:妇和哺乳期妇女应将金鱼的摄入量限制在每周6盎司(约合170克)。The advisory committee has recommended that these agencies “re-evaluate” their stance on tuna for pregnant women. In the report, the panel argues that albacore tuna is a “special case.” They noted that even when women ate double the recommended weekly amount of tuna, the benefits far outweighed the risks. “All evidence was in favor of net benefits for infant development and (cardiovascular disease) risk reduction,” the panel wrote.咨询委员会建议上述机构“重新评估”他们在妇食用金鱼问题上的立场,并在报告中指出:长鳍金鱼应作为一个“特例”。即使妇女食用每周建议量两倍的金鱼,其净收益也远远大于风险。“所有的据都持它有益于婴儿发育,并可降低(心血管疾病)的风险。”The suggestion that pregnant women can eat more white albacore tuna — the type of tuna typically used in canned tuna — has upset advocacy groups that have called for increased warnings about mercury on tuna packaging.顾问小组表示妇适当多吃些白长鳍金鱼(常用于制作金鱼罐头)也无妨,这令大声疾呼应对包装金鱼食品的汞污染提高警惕的宣传组织十分不满。“Tuna is responsible for nearly seven times more mercury exposure than the four high-mercury fish that the Federal Food and Drug Administration advises pregnant women not to eat,” said Michael Bender, director of the mercury policy project, in a statement. “So why would the proposed 2015 dietary guidelines recommend that pregnant women eat more of it?”“金鱼中的汞污染是美国食品和药品监督建议妇不要食用的四种高汞鱼类的近七倍,”汞政策项目”(mercury policy project)的负责人迈克尔·本德尔(Michael Bender)在一份声明中称。“那么,又为何提出在2015年的膳食指南中建议妇多吃金鱼?”But Dr. Steve Abrams, a panel member involved in the seafood recommendations and medical director of the Neonatal Nutrition Program at Baylor College of Medicine, said that while women need to be aware of the types of fish they are eating, the evidence is strong that fish consumption by mothers is good for the brains of their babies.但是,参与制定海产品膳食建议的顾问小组成员、美国贝勒医学院(Baylor College of Medicine)新生儿营养项目(Neonatal Nutrition Program)主任史蒂夫·艾布拉姆斯(Steve Abrams)士表示,虽然妇女需要对自己食用的几种鱼类多加注意,但强有力的据显示母亲食用鱼肉对婴儿的大脑有好处。“The goal of the dietary guidelines is to give people a healthy way to eat and not to include or exclude certain foods,” said Dr. Abrams. “The benefit of having (omega-3 fatty acids) in your diet really exceeds the likely risk of contamination. The point is that you should have a variety of types of seafood and not limit yourself to one type, and variety includes canned tuna.”“膳食指南的目的在于指导人们以健康的方式饮食,而不是将某些食物纳入或排除出食谱,”艾布拉姆斯士说。“膳食中加入含(ω-3脂肪酸)的食物带来的收益大大超过了可能的污染风险。问题的关键是,你应该食用包括金鱼罐头在内的多种的海产品,而不是局限于某一特定种类。”Alice Lichtenstein, senior scientist and director of the Cardiovascular Nutrition Laboratory at Tufts University said the panel hasn’t suggested that pregnant women eat more tuna. “The issue of fish contamination is a moving target and you need very current data,” said Dr. Lichtenstein. “It may be that the issue is re-evaluated and there is no change.”塔夫茨大学(Tufts University)心血管营养实验室(Cardiovascular Nutrition Laboratory)主任、资深科学家艾丽斯·利希滕斯坦(Alice Lichtenstein)表示,该小组并未建议妇多吃金鱼。“鱼肉污染的情况无时无刻不在发生变化,需要研究即时的数据,”利希滕斯坦士说。“很可能,在重新评估过该问题后,发现无需做出改变。”Mercury levels in our oceans are on the rise due to an increase in industrial mercury emissions. Plants, plankton and tiny fish that have absorbed small amounts of mercury are eaten by larger fish. Over time, large fish sharks and swordfish accumulate high levels of mercury. As a result, health officials recommend fish like sardines, salmon, tilapia and trout that are lower on the food chain and have accumulated less mercury in their tissue.工业汞排放的增加造成海洋中的汞含量持续上升。植物、浮游生物和小鱼体内都吸收了少量的汞,而它们又是大鱼的口中餐。随着时间的推移,鲨鱼和箭鱼等大型鱼类体内就积累了高浓度的汞。因此,卫生官员建议人们食用位于食物链较低位置,组织中积累汞含量较少的鱼类,如沙丁鱼、鲑鱼、罗非鱼和鳟鱼等。The benefits of fish consumption on a developing fetus are clear. In a Harvard study of 135 mothers and infants, researchers tracked fish consumption during pregnancy and tested the mother’s hair to measure her mercury exposure. They found that for each weekly serving of fish the mother ate while pregnant, her baby’s score on visual recognition memory tests increased an average of four points. At the same time, a baby’s score dropped by 7.5 points for every one part per million increase in mercury found in the mother’s hair sample. The babies who scored highest on the memory tests were those whose mothers had consumed two or more servings of fish each week during their pregnancy, but were tested to have very low mercury levels.食用鱼肉对发育中的胎儿的益处显而易见。在哈佛大学(Harvard)的一项研究中,科学家们以135对母婴为研究对象,跟踪了母亲在妊娠期食用鱼肉的情况,并检测了母亲的头发以测定其汞暴露程度。他们发现,妇每食用一周份的鱼肉,日后其孩子在视觉识别记忆测试中的得分平均将增加四分。同时,母亲头发样本中的汞含量每增加一百万分之一(p.p.m.),她孩子的上述得分就会降低7.5分。当母亲在妊娠期间每周至少食用两份鱼肉,头发检测出的汞浓度又非常低时,孩子在记忆测试中得分最高。Health officials have long worried about balancing warnings about mercury against the obvious benefits of consuming more fish. Currently fewer than one in five Americans eats the recommended two servings a week of fish. About one-third eat one serving of seafood weekly and nearly half of us eats very little seafood or none at all.长久以来,卫生官员在究竟是强调多吃鱼好处多多还是警惕汞摄入量之间,举棋不定。目前,只有不到五分之一的美国人遵照建议每周食用两份鱼肉。约三分之一的人每周食用一份海产品,近一半人仅食用很少或根本不食用海产品。This fall Consumer Reports issued a lengthy paper on fish and mercury exposure, noting the special concerns about canned tuna due to its popularity. Six ounces of canned tuna contains 60 micrograms of mercury compared to just 4 micrograms of mercury in a six-ounce serving of salmon, according to Consumer Reports. (A six-ounce serving of swordfish contains 170 micrograms, the magazine said. )去年秋天的时候,《消费者报告》(Consumer Reports)发表了关于鱼类和汞暴露的长篇文章,并对广受欢迎的金鱼罐头表示了特别关注。《消费者报告》称,6盎司金鱼罐头中含有60微克的汞,相比之下,一份6盎司的鲑鱼中汞含量只有4微克。(该杂志还称,一份6盎司的箭鱼中含有170微克的汞。)For people who want to safely eat more seafood, the magazine recommended shrimp, scallops, sardines, salmon, oysters, squid and tilapia as the lowest-mercury seafood. Also low are haddock, pollock, flounder and sole, Atlantic croaker, crawfish, catfish, trout, Atlantic mackerel, crab and mullet. In addition to the usual warnings about high mercury fish, Consumer Reports added marlin and orange roughy to the list. They suggested limiting consumption of grouper, Chilean sea bass, bluefish, halibut, black cod, Spanish mackerel and fresh tuna.杂志建议,如果想要放心地食用较大量的海产品,可选择虾、扇贝、沙丁鱼、鲑鱼、牡蛎、鱿鱼和罗非鱼等汞含量最低的海产品。其他汞含量较低的品种有:黑线鳕、青鳕、比目鱼和鳎、细须石首鱼、小龙虾、鲶鱼、鳟鱼、大西洋鲭鱼、蟹和鲻鱼。高汞鱼类的警告列表中,除了常见的那几种之外,《消费者报告》又补充了马林鱼和大西洋胸棘鲷。建议有限制地食用的鱼类有:石斑鱼、智利海鲈鱼、扁鲹、星鲽、银鳕、马鲛鱼和新鲜金鱼。 /201504/368763The #64257;rst time Laura Poitras was stopped and questioned at an airport, she thought it was a mistake. Flying home to the US from the Sarajevo #64257;lm festival in 2006, she was paged at Vienna airport and asked to go to security. She was put on a bus, taken to a baggage inspection room and questioned about her trip. She asked: “Why are you stopping me?” The answer: “Well, you know, your name came up on a US government list, and you have a threat score that is really high.”...If it was high then, today it is stratospheric. Poitras has played a key role in the world’s greatest leak of espionage secrets — American whistleblower Edward Snowden’s revelations of a huge US electronic surveillance programme. Poitras is one of only two journalists to whom Snowden last year entrusted his treasure trove of documents taken from the National Security Agency, the cyber intelligence organisation. She is also the director of Citizenfour, a #64257;lm about her encounter with Snowden, which is tipped for an Oscar as best documentary of 2014.Poitras now assumes she is under surveillance, night and day. “I am lit up like a Christmas tree behind the scenes,” she says, quite casually. “Which means there is probably a graph, and the graph shows who are the people that I am in contact with.” She is speaking in Berlin, where she now lives. Milky autumn light streams through the windows, gently illuminating her. She looks younger than her 52 years and gestures fluidly when she speaks. If she worries about the perpetual monitoring of her daily life, she does not show it. “The choice is, either I say: ‘Well, I’ll stop doing this kind of work,’ you know, because the harassment is really bothersome, or ‘I’ll keep doing it.’”The incident at Vienna airport occurred soon after she had #64257;nished My Country, My Country, a 2006 #64257;lm that followed the lives of ordinary Iraqis under the US occupation after the overthrow of Saddam Hussein. Nominated for an Oscar, it also caused the US intelligence agencies to put Poitras on something she now knows is a “watch list” — a roster of people the US authorities seek to track. Next came another documentary that may have irritated the US government — The Oath, a 2010 #64257;lm about two Yemeni brothers who served Osama bin Laden as driver and bodyguard, one of whom ended up in Guantánamo Bay.That #64257;rst Vienna questioning has been followed by about 40 others at US airports. Poitras has had her computer, notebooks and mobile phone taken away, sometimes for weeks. She says she assumed that when of#64257;cials realised she was “just a #64257;lm-maker”, she would be taken off the list. But it didn’t happen. “And then, I became more confrontational at the airport, you know, taking notes while answering questions, asserting my rights as a journalist.”When Snowden got in touch last year, she quickly realised his story had the potential to cause a much bigger shock than anything she had done before. “The minute I thought Snowden was real, of course, I was fearful. I mean it was clear this was going to be dangerous — to anger the most powerful people in the world.”The 31-year-old computer expert had electronic #64257;les containing more than one million documents Snowden had taken from the NSA, where he worked as a contractor until he fled for Hong Kong in May 2013. He decided to hand them over to Poitras and Guardian journalist Glenn Greenwald. Hiding in a Hong Kong hotel, he arranged a secret meeting with them and another Guardian journalist. As Poitras portrays in Citizenfour, Snowden spent hours in his cramped room explaining his secrets and convincing the three reporters. Later she asked Snowden why he had chosen her. He emailed in reply: “You asked why I picked you. I didn’t. You did.” He was talking about her reputation: she was the kind of formidable force he needed to make sure his revelations would reach a global audience.The result was a string of stories published in The Guardian, The Washington Post, Germany’s Der Spiegel magazine and elsewhere, detailing the electronic spying operations of the NSA and its partners in the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. They reported on Prism, a secret programme for eavesdropping on Americans’ Google and Yahoo accounts; on Tempora, a British-run global surveillance scheme, and on XKeyscore, a computer #64257;lter for sifting vast amounts of internet data. The stories revealed that agents spied on players engaged in the World of Warcraft online game, snooped around aid organisations Unicef and Médecins Sans Frontières, and even tapped the mobile phone of German chancellor Angela Merkel.The impact was immediate. In the US, Snowden was condemned by some as a traitor and lauded by others as a hero. The authorities charged him with espionage and accused him of assisting the enemies of the US. Washington wants to bring Snowden back from Russia, where he sought protection a few days after his encounter with Poitras.However, US President Barack Obama also ordered a review of NSA procedures, which made a string of recommendations to increase court scrutiny. “One of the things that has been interesting to watch about the NSA story is how it has cut across political lines. We have had people both from the Democratic and the Republican parties who have been outraged,” says Poitras. In other countries, support for Snowden has been far stronger, notably in Germany, where politicians were furious at the Merkel phone-tap and public opinion is particularly concerned about the invasion of privacy.Little in Poitras’s early life prepared her for this global drama. She grew up in a prosperous home in Boston, Massachusetts. She won’t talk about her family but it is a matter of record that her wealthy parents donated m for medical research to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After school, the young Poitras moved to San Francisco and worked for a while as a pastry chef before taking up #64257;lm studies. She moved to New York, where she focused on documentaries and made her #64257;rst award-winning #64257;lm, Flag Wars, an account of the gentri#64257;cation of Columbus, Ohio.Everything changed for Poitras in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attack. “Somehow I felt that what was happening in the country was really disturbing and that I wanted to say something about it,” she remembers. She became increasingly concerned about the US government’s response, including the treatment of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay. And she started work on the controversial #64257;lms that have made her one of the world’s best-known documentary-makers.Despite being a favourite for an Oscar, she says winning awards is not the point — the #64257;lms themselves are the point. Poitras is not convinced governments have changed much in response to the Snowden disclosures. “There has been a lot of lip service and a lot of recommendations in committees but no real fundamental changes of these policies,” she says. “In terms of concrete policy changes, maybe Merkel’s phone isn’t being tapped right now. But I am not sure how much of a big shift there is.”So surveillance continues at the same level as before? Poitras thinks there is “probably some reining in” of the targeted surveillance of people who “cannot be suspected of any wrongdoing”, perhaps out of fear of legal action. “I would guess people think twice in the intelligence agencies before they do that.” But she is far more positive about the revelations’ wider impact. “The reporting has changed consciousness and awareness around these issues#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;globally,” she says.Technology companies, including Google, Apple and Facebook, are “making real big changes in terms of offering privacy for customers” out of a fear that co-operating with the US government could lose them business, she says. “So you have those kind of things in the tech industry that are shifting and I think will continue to shift. They’ll be offering encryption and privacy for customers.”Poitras is particularly pleased with developments in Germany, where she has lived since 2012 before she began making Citizenfour, having decided it would be too risky to work in the US. But she is scathing about Britain, which she has refused to visit, even to promote Citizenfour, for fear of arrest. “My lawyers really were concerned and careful, and so the UK is the one country that I haven’t travelled to.”She adds: “Yes, I go back to the US but the US is different. I mean, the US has the First Amendment [in its constitution] that protects the press. It has never happened that the US government has gone after journalists for publishing information that is classi#64257;ed.”In Britain, it is the catch-all nature of the Of#64257;cial Secrets Act that deters her, especially after of#64257;cials entered The Guardian’s offices and ordered the destruction of Snowden-linked computer hardware. This moment is captured in the #64257;lm — the hammers smashing the electronics to pieces. Her voice rising slightly, she says: “I mean, it is shocking to me actually to learn this, that there are no laws that are protecting the press and no historical memory of what happens if you don’t have a healthy functioning free press.”Like Snowden himself, Poitras believes there are cases when secret surveillance is legitimate — suspected terrorist plots, for example, or nuclear proliferation. “But it shouldn’t be bulk drag nets, suspicious surveillance of entire populations. We live in democracies that have a rule of law, which has been sidestepped in these programmes.”She admits surveillance has changed her. Not only is she ultra-careful about practical issues — such as encrypting emails and having two computers, one for work and one for general use. She re- George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four when she was getting emails from Snowden and was struck by the moment when the hero, Winston Smith, is trying to write a journal without being observed by the all-seeing eyes of the state. She recalls: “The sort of chilling effect then, when actually he sits down to write, he actually couldn’t express himself. I felt this, not to that extent, but there is this chilling effect where you realise that, well, if I think my computer is in#64257;ltrated, then do I really want [to write] personal things on an email? I start using pencil and paper, you know — those kinds of things.”But she is proud that she trusts all the people involved in the Snowden #64257;lm — and that a majority of her closest colleagues were women. When she presented her team at a premiere in Berlin, nine of the #64257;rst 15 people on the stage were female; she says she chose individuals not because they were women but because they were “absolutely the best people” and that in documentary #64257;lm-making women play a much bigger role than they do in Hollywood. “There are so many prominent women directors in documentary, so I don’t feel what I am doing is unique.”She wonders whether this is because the organisations are much smaller than for Hollywood features. “I actually think you can make your way without going through the same levels of systems’ bureaucracies. I don’t know.”Poitras sees Citizenfour as the third in a trilogy about US power that began with her Iraq and Guantánamo #64257;lms. She says it is “too soon to say” what she might do next. But she is working on a #64257;lm-based installation for the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York in 2016 that will address “the same themes but in a different way”.“The truth is that I am not going to stop caring about these issues. We are 13 years after 9/11 and still have a war in Afghanistan. We still have policies that are really moving us in a direction that I don’t think is right for the country. There is a sort of moral drift away from fundamental principles, of transparency and government.” It is a serious view. But then making Poitras documentaries is a serious business. Snowden chose well.当劳拉#8226;波伊特拉斯(Laura Poitras)第一次在机场被拦下询问时,她以为是弄错了。2006年从萨拉热窝电影节(the Sarajevo #64257;lm festival)飞回美国途中,她听到维也纳机场的大喇叭里喊着她的名字,让她去找安检人员。她被带上一辆巴士,送到一间行李检查室,接受关于其行程的盘问。她问道:“你们为什么要拦下我?”回答是:“嗯,你知道,你的名字出现在美国政府的一份名单上,而且你的威胁分数真的很高。”她的威胁分数如果当时算高的话,如今就肯定直上云霄了。波伊特拉斯在世界上最大规模的间谍泄密事件——美国泄密者爱德华#8226;斯诺登(Edward Snowden)曝光美国大规模电子监听计划——中扮演了关键角色。去年,斯诺登把自己从美国网络情报机构——国家安全局(NSA)拿走的珍贵文件只委托给了2名记者,波伊特拉斯便是其中之一。她还是《第四公民》(Citizenfour)的导演,这部纪录片讲述了她遇到斯诺登的经过,有望获得奥斯卡2014年最佳纪录片奖。波伊特拉斯现在认为,她从早到晚都处在监视之下。“我像一颗在幕后被点亮的圣诞树,”她相当从容地说,“这意味着,他们很可能有个图表,上面显示了我接触的人。”她在柏林接受采访,那里是她现在的居住地。秋天柔和的阳光洒进窗内,淡淡地照亮了她。她看起来比52岁的实际年龄年轻些,说话时手势很多。如果说她对日常生活受到无时无刻的监视感到忧虑,那么她至少没有表现出来。“我面临的选择是,要不说‘好吧,我会停止做这类工作’,你懂的,因为这种骚扰真的很烦人,或者说‘我会继续这么做’。”维也纳机场事件发生的不久前,波伊特拉斯刚刚完成了《伊拉克,我的祖国》(My Country, My Country)的制作。这部2006年的纪录片叙述了在萨达姆#8226;侯赛因(Saddam Hussein)被推翻后,伊拉克普通人在美国占领下的生活。该片获得奥斯卡提名,也导致美国情报机构把波伊特拉斯列入她现在所知的“观察名单”——美国有关部门试图追踪的人员名单。接下来是另一部可能激怒了美国政府的纪录片——《誓言》(The Oath)。这部2010年的影片讲述了为奥萨马#8226;本#8226;拉登(Osama bin Laden)当司机和保镖的也门两兄弟,其中一人后来成了关塔那湾(Guantánamo Bay)的在押人员。在维也纳第一次被盘问之后,她又在美国不同的机场被盘问了40来次。波伊特拉斯的电脑、笔记簿、手机都曾被扣押,有时数周后才拿回。她说,她本来以为,当官员们意识到她“只是个电影人”之后,就会从名单上删除她的名字。但事实不是这样。“于是,我在机场变得比较不客气,边回答问话边作笔记,坚持自己作为记者的权利。”去年斯诺登与她联系时,她很快意识到,他的故事可能引发的轩然会超过她以往做过的任何事。“当我意识到斯诺登所言属实时,我当然害怕。我的意思是,这显然会很危险——会激怒世界上一些最强大的人。”当时,这位31岁电脑专家的电子文档包含了他从NSA拿走的超过100万份文件。斯诺登在2013年5月逃往香港之前是NSA的合同工。他决定把这些文档都交给波伊特拉斯和英国《卫报》(Guardian)记者格伦#8226;格林沃尔德(Glenn Greenwald)。藏身于香港一家酒店的他,安排了与二人和另一名《卫报》记者的秘密会面。正如波伊特拉斯在《第四公民》中所描绘的一样,斯诺登在其狭小房间内花了几个小时解释他的秘密,让三名记者相信他。后来,波伊特拉斯问斯诺登为何选择她。他回邮件称:“你问我为什么选你。我没有选你。是你选了自己。”他指的是她的声望:他需要一种令人敬畏的力量来确保他的爆料能引起全球的注意,她就是这种力量。结果就是《卫报》、《华盛顿邮报》(The Washington Post)、德国《明镜周刊》(Der Spiegel)等媒体发表的一系列报道,详尽描述了NSA及其在英国、加拿大、澳大利亚和新西兰的伙伴机构所进行的电子侦察活动。这些报道曝光了窥探美国人谷歌(Google)和雅虎(Yahoo)账户的秘密计划“棱镜”(Prism);英国运行的Tempora全球监听计划;以及用于筛选海量互联网数据的电脑过滤器XKeyscore。这些报道曝光了情报人员监视网络游戏“魔兽世界”(World of Warcraft)的玩家,窥探援助组织如联合国儿童基金会(Unicef)和无国界医生组织(MSF),甚至窃听德国总理安格拉#8226;默克尔(Angela Merkel)的手机。这些爆料立刻引发冲击波。在美国,有人指责斯诺登为“叛徒”,也有人赞其为“英雄”。当局以间谍罪对其提出刑事控罪,指控其帮助美国的敌人。华盛顿方面希望将斯诺登从俄罗斯引渡回国。斯诺登在与波伊特拉斯见面几天后便前往俄罗斯并寻求保护。然而,美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)也命令对NSA的工作流程进行评估,评估结果提出了一系列加强法庭审核的建议。波伊特拉斯称:“关于NSA事件,其中一个有意思的看点在于这件事是如何跨越政治界线的。我们看到,对此气愤填膺的既有民主党人也有共和党人。”在其他国家,对斯诺登的持要大得多,特别是德国。该国政界人士对默克尔手机被监听极为愤怒,舆论对侵犯隐私也尤为关切。波伊特拉斯的早年人生经历对这种全球戏剧性事件没有什么铺垫。她在马萨诸塞州波士顿的一个富裕家庭长大。她不愿谈论自己的家庭,但公开记录显示,她的有钱的父母向麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)的医学研究捐赠了2000万美元。年轻的波伊特拉斯在毕业后来到旧金山,在那里当了一段时间的糕点主厨,随后开始攻读电影研究专业。她来到纽约专门从事纪录片制作,首部获奖影片是《旗帜之争》(Flag Wars),讲述俄亥俄州哥伦布市的中产阶层化。对波伊特拉斯来说,“9/11”恐怖袭击发生后,一切都变了。她回忆道:“我觉得,这个国家发生的事情真的令人不安,对此我想要说些什么。”她越来越担忧美国政府的回应,包括关塔那湾的在押人员待遇问题。她开始制作有争议的影片,这让她成为全球最著名的的纪录片制作人之一。尽管获得奥斯卡奖的呼声很高,但她表示,获奖并不是意义所在;电影本身才是。波伊特拉斯不相信各国政府因斯诺登的曝光而有太大改变。她说:“有很多表面文章,各种委员会提出许多建议,但这些政策没有根本上的改变。就具体的政策改变而言,或许默克尔的电话现在没有遭到窃听。但我不肯定有什么大的变化。”因此监听程度还和过去一样?波伊特拉斯认为,或许由于担心面临法律诉讼,针对那些没有涉嫌有不当行为的目标的监视“很可能有所收敛”。“我猜,现在情报机构的人在监听前会三思。”但她对斯诺登曝光的整体影响看法积极得多。她说:“这些报道在全球范围……改变了人们对这些问题的观念和认识。”波伊特拉斯表示,由于担心与美国政府合作可能让它们丧失业务,谷歌、苹果(Apple)和Facebook等科技公司“在保护客户隐私方面正在做出切实的重大改变”。“因此技术行业正在出现那类转变,而且我认为转变将会继续。它们将为客户提供加密和隐私保护”。波伊特拉斯尤其对德国的事态发展感到高兴——她自2012年(那是在她开始制作《第四公民》之前)以来住在德国,因为她认为在美国工作风险过大。但她对英国的批评很尖锐——由于担心被捕,她拒绝去英国,即便为了推介《第四公民》也不例外。“我的律师非常担忧和小心,因此我没有去过英国”。她补充称:“没错,我会回美国,但美国有所不同。我的意思是,美国有保护媒体的宪法《第一修正案》(First Amendment)。美国政府从未因记者发表机密信息而对其进行追捕。”在英国,《官方保密法》(Official Secrets Act)不受约束的触角范围令她却步,尤其是在官员们闯入《卫报》办公室,下令毁掉与斯诺登相关的电脑设备之后。电影中记录了那一刻——锤子将电子设备砸成碎片。她略微提高声音说:“我的意思是,得知这个消息令我震惊,没有法律保护新闻机构;如果没有健康运转的自由媒体,就没有对发生事件的历史记忆。”像斯诺登本人一样,波伊特拉斯认为秘密监视在某些情况下是正当的——例如疑似的恐怖分子阴谋或核扩散。“但它不应是巨大的拖网,对全体人口进行疑神疑鬼的监听。我们生活在实行法治的民主国家,这些监听计划绕开了法治。”她承认监视改变了她。她不仅对实际事务极为谨慎,比如加密电子邮件,并且拥有两台电脑:一台用于工作,另一台作一般用途。当她收到斯诺登的邮件时,她重读了乔治#8226;奥威尔(George Orwell)的《一九八四》(Nineteen Eighty-Four)。她被书中的英雄温斯顿#8226;史密斯(Winston Smith)试图在不受政府监视的情况下写日记的情节打动。她回忆说:“随之而来的可以说是寒蝉效应,当他真正坐下来写的时候,他居然无法表达自己的真实感受。我感受到了这一点,虽然没到那种程度,但是这种寒蝉效应是存在的,你意识到,嗯,既然我认为自己的电脑被入侵了,那我还要在电子邮件里写私人的事情吗?所以,我开始使用铅笔和纸,诸如此类的事情。”但她引以自豪的是,她信任所有参与制作斯诺登电影的人,她最密切的同事中多数是女性。当她在柏林的首映式上介绍她的团队时,首批出场站到台上的15人中9位是女性;她说,她选择这些人不是因为她们是女性,而是因为她们是“绝对最优秀的人”,而且女性拍摄纪录片比在好莱坞作用更大。“有这么多杰出的女性纪录片导演,所以我不觉得自己是独一无二的。”她揣测,这是否是因为制作纪录片的组织规模比好莱坞大片小得多。“我觉得你可以走自己的路,而无需通过官僚体制的各个层级。我不知道。”波伊特拉斯把《第四公民》看作她关于美国实力三部曲的第三部;前两部是她拍摄的关于伊拉克和关塔那的纪录片。她说,现在讨论下一步可能做什么还“为时尚早”。但她正在为2016年纽约惠特尼美国艺术物馆(Whitney Museum of American Art)的一个基于电影的展览做准备,这个展览将以“不同的方式展现相同的主题”。“说实话,我不会停止关心这些问题。9/11事件已经过去13年,但我们仍在阿富汗打仗,仍有一些政策在推动美国向着我认为不对的方向前行。我们在透明度和政府上有点偏离了根本的道德原则。”这是一个严肃的看法,可是像波伊特拉斯那样制作纪录片本来就是一项严肃的事业。斯诺登选得很精明。

It may surprise fans of Johanna Basford’s intricately hand-drawn coloring books that the artist is, by her own admission, “pretty bad” at coloring.可能会让书迷感到惊讶的是,创作了精美的涂色本的乔安娜·巴斯福德(Johanna Basford)承认自己涂色“很差劲”。“I can’t stay in the lines,” she said sheepishly.她不好意思地说:“我老是涂出去”。Not that it matters. Ms. Basford’s coloring book “Secret Garden,” a 96-page collection of elaborate black-and-white ink drawings of flowers, leaves, trees and birds, has become a global best-seller.不过这根本不影响什么,重要的是她的96页涂色本《秘密花园》(Secret Garden)已成为全球畅销书。Since its release in spring 2013, “Secret Garden” has sold more than 1.4 million copies in 22 languages. It shot to the top of Amazon’s best-seller list this month, overtaking books by authors like Harper Lee, Anthony Doerr and Paula Hawkins. Her follow-up, “Enchanted Forest,” which came out in February, is briskly selling through its first print run of nearly 226,000 copies.从2013年春天出版以来, 这本满是细节丰富的花鸟虫鱼的书已经翻译成22种语言,销量超过140万册。本月它直登亚马逊(Amazon)的畅销书榜首位,击败了哈珀·李(Harper Lee)、安瑟尼·杜尔(Anthony Doerr)和宝拉·霍金斯(Paula Hawkins)的书。她的接下来的作品《魔法森林》(Enchanted Forest)在二月出版,首印轻松卖了近22.6万册。What makes Ms. Basford’s breakout success all the more surprising is her target audience: adults who like coloring books.而让巴斯福德的蹿红愈发显得惊人的是,她的目标受众是喜欢涂色本的成年人。There are, it seems, a lot of them. Though it is tempting to describe the market for her books as niche, Ms. Basford, a 31-year-old illustrator in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, has quickly outgrown that label.看起来这样的还不在少数。人们倾向于认为她所针对的是一个小众市场,但这位年方31岁的苏格兰阿伯丁郡插画家已迅速超越这个范畴。Like Play-Doh, jungle gyms and nursery rhymes, coloring books have always seemed best suited for the preschool set. So Ms. Basford and her publisher were surprised to learn that there was a robust — and lucrative — market for coloring books aimed at grown-ups. When they first tested the waters with “Secret Garden” a year ago, they released a cautiously optimistic first printing of 16,000 books.和橡皮泥、攀玩架、童谣一样,涂色本向来被认为是给学龄前儿童的东西。因此当巴斯福德和她的出版商得知针对成人的涂色本市场规模不小且利润丰厚时,他们是很意外的。一年前他们用《秘密花园》试水,本着谨慎乐观的态度决定首印1.6万册。“I thought my mom was going to have to buy a lot of copies,” Ms. Basford said. “When the sales started to take off, it was a real shock.”“我本来以为要让我妈去买一大堆回来了,”巴斯福德说。“销量往上冲的时候我真是被吓一大跳。”Surging demand caught Ms. Basford and her publisher off guard. Fan mail poured in from busy professionals and parents who confided to Ms. Basford that they found coloring in her books relaxing. More accolades flowed on social media, as people posted images from their coloring books.高涨的需求是巴斯福德和她的出版商始料未及的。忙碌的职场人士和家长纷纷给巴斯福德来信,坦陈给她的书涂色让他们感到放松。人们把涂色本上的手绘图发到网上,又在社交媒体中掀起一股热潮。Hard-core fans often buy several copies of her books at a time, to experiment with different color combinations. Others have turned it into a social activity. Rebekah Jean Duthie, who lives in Queensland, Australia, and works for the Australian Red Cross, says she regularly gathers with friends for “coloring circles” at cafes and in one another’s homes.铁杆粉丝经常一次买好几本她的书,尝试用不同的颜色组合。还有的人已经把它当成一种社交活动。家住昆士兰的瑞贝卡·简·达西(Rebekah Jean Duthie)在澳大利亚红十字会工作。她定期和朋友在咖啡馆或彼此的家中一起玩“转圈涂色”。“Each page can transport you back to a gentler time of life,” she said of Ms. Basford’s books in an email.“每一页都能让你回到一段更祥和的时光,”她在一封电子邮件中这么描述巴斯福德的书。Ms. Basford has become something of a literary celebrity in South Korea, where “Secret Garden” has sold more than 430,000 copies, she says. The craze was kicked off in part, it seems, by a Korean pop star, Kim Ki-bum, who posted a delicately colored-in floral pattern from Ms. Basford’s book on Instagram, where he has 1.8 million followers.在韩国,巴斯福德已经成为一位文学名流,她说在那里《秘密花园》销量已超过43万册。这种狂热是由韩国明星金起范拉开序幕,他把巴斯福德的花卉图案精心涂色,发到Instagram上,他在那里拥有180万粉丝。Part of the apparent appeal is the tactile, interactive nature of the books, which offer respite to the screen-weary. “People are really excited to do something analog and creative, at a time when we’re all so overwhelmed by screens and the Internet,” she said. “And coloring is not as scary as a blank sheet of paper or canvas. It’s a great way to de-stress.”一定程度上,这些书的吸引人之处显然在于它们的触感和互动性,给厌倦了屏幕的人带来一些缓解。“在被屏幕和互联网包围的时代,人们非常乐于去做一些模拟的、创造性的事情,”她说。“涂色不像在一张空白的纸或画布上画那么吓人。它是缓解压力的好方法。”Ms. Basford started out in fashion, working on silk-screen designs. Then she opened a studio on her parents’ trout and salmon farm in Scotland, and began designing hand-drawn wallpaper for luxury hotels and boutiques. When the financial crisis hit, her business evaporated. She closed the studio and found work as a commercial illustrator for companies like Starbucks, Nike and Sony.巴斯福德一开始从事的是时尚业,做丝网印刷设计。她的父母在苏格兰有一个鳟鱼和鲑鱼养殖场,她在那里开了一个工作室,为豪华酒店和精品店设计手绘壁纸。后来金融危机来袭,她的生意全没了。她关了工作室,开始做商业插画家,为像星巴克(Starbucks)、耐克(Nike)和索尼(Sony)这样的公司工作。Her publishing break came in 2011, when an editor at Laurence King Publishing discovered her work online. The editor thought her graceful illustrations could work well as a children’s coloring book.她在出版业的突破出现在2011年,当时劳伦斯·金出版社(Laurence King Publishing)的一位编辑在网上看到她的作品,认为她的这些优美的插图很适合用作儿童涂色本。“I came back and said I would like to do a coloring book for grown-ups, and it got a bit quiet for a moment,” Ms. Basford said. “Coloring books for adults weren’t as much of a thing then.”“我回答说,我想要为成年人画一本涂色本,当时有些冷场,”巴斯福德说。“那时候还不太有成人涂色书这种东西。”To convince them that it was a viable market, she drew five sample pages of detailed, mosaic-like illustrations. The publishers were sold.为了让他们相信这是一个可行的市场,她画了五幅样图,是有丰富细节的马赛克式插画。出版社被说了。“When Johanna first approached us with the idea, we knew that people would love her illustrations as much as we did, but could never have predicted just how big the adult coloring trend would be,” said Jo Lightfoot, editorial director of Laurence King Publishing.劳伦斯·金出版社编辑部主任乔·莱特福特(Jo Lightfoot)说:“当乔安娜第一次向我们提出这个想法时,我们知道人们会跟我们一样喜爱她的插图,但我们绝对没料到成人涂色书能这么火。”Ms. Basford spent the next nine months working on the book at night and freelancing as an illustrator during the day. Occasionally she had doubts. “I was worried that coloring for adults was silly and it was just me that wanted to do it,” she said.接下来九个月里,巴斯福德每晚都在画那本书,白天仍做自由职业插画师的工作。偶尔她也会怀疑。“我很担心成人涂色书是个傻主意,只有我才想这么做,”她说。It turns out she was far from alone. Other entries to this small but growing category include Patricia J. Wynne’s lavish, nature-themed Creative Haven coloring books — discreetly described as being “designed for experienced colorists” — and the more explicitly titled “Coloring Books for Grownups,” released by Chiquita Publishing. A subspecies of these books promote the meditative aspects of coloring and doodling, including “Color Me Calm” (subtitle: “A Zen Coloring Book”) and books that promise “Easy Meditation Through Coloring.”原来她一点也不孤单。这个小众但在不断扩大的门类中,还包括帕特里夏·J·韦恩(Patricia J. Wynne)的“创意港湾”(Creative Haven),一个华丽的自然主题涂色本系列,被小心翼翼地描述为“针对经验丰富的涂色玩家”,而金吉达出版社(Chiquita Publishing)的“大人的涂色本”系列(Coloring Books for Grownups)就要明确很多。这种书有一个子类是宣扬涂色和涂鸦的冥想功能的,包括《我涂我平静》(Color Me Calm,副标题:“一本禅涂色本”),还有的承诺“用涂色实现简易的冥想”。Major publishers are seizing on the trend. This year, Little, Brown will release four illustrated coloring books for adults, all subtitled “Color Your Way to Calm.” The books, “Splendid Cities” by the British artists Rosie Goodwin and Alice Chadwick and three titles by the French illustrator Zoé de Las Cases, feature detailed cityscapes with famous landmarks, cafes and street life. Promotional materials for the books emphasize the health benefits of “mindful coloring,” noting that the activity “has been shown to be a stress reliever for adults.”大出版商正在赶这股潮流。今年,利特尔amp;布朗出版社(Little, Brown)将出版四本面向成人的插画涂色本,统一副标题为“涂色让你静下来”(Color Your Way to Calm)。包括由英国艺术家罗茜·古德温(Rosie Goodwin)与爱丽丝·查德威克(Alice Chadwick)画的“锦绣城”(Splendid Cities)系列,还有法国插画家祖依·德拉卡斯(Zoé de Las Cases)的三本书,详尽勾画了著名地标、咖啡馆和街道生活等城市景观。书的宣传材料强调“用心的涂色”对健康的好处,称这种活动“已被明是成人的压力缓解法”。Ms. Basford is now working on her third book, after soliciting suggestions for themes from fans. A vocal faction has requested an ocean-themed coloring book. “I’ve been drawing starfish and seahorses this afternoon,” she said.巴斯福德目前正在为她的第三本书的主题征求书迷的建议。有一拨人强烈要求以海洋为主题的涂色本。“今天下午我一直在画海星和海马,”她说。In the meantime, “Secret Garden” has sold out in many markets, to the consternation of fans. Laurence King is reprinting 75,000 copies for the ed States.与此同时,《秘密花园》在许多市场都卖光了,令书迷陷入恐慌。劳伦斯·金出版社为美国市场又印了7.5万册。This month, Ms. Basford tried to calm her followers with a post on her Facebook page, promising that newly printed books would be shipping in a few weeks: “Don’t panic! New stock of Secret Garden and Enchanted Forest is on its way!”为了安抚书迷,这个月巴斯福德在Facebook上承诺几周内会有加印到货:“不要惊慌!《秘密花园》和《魔法森林》补货马上到!”Some were not placated. “WEEKS?” one frantic follower replied. “I can’t possibly wait WEEKS!”有的人却没那么容易打发。“几周?”一个情绪激动的粉丝回贴说,“我根本等不了那么久!” /201507/384604

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